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Psyc: Human Development > Ch. 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 7 Deck (83)
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Two parent families:

- traditional
- blended
- adoptive, gay, foster, and grandparent-headed families


One parent families:

- traditional, gay, bisexual, grandparent


Unmarried couples

- typically mother-headed


what is the traditional nuclear family?

- as of 2012 it is a heterosexual married couple with biological children


what are blended families?

- spouses divorced and remarried (step parents, step children)


ratio of single parents

1 in 4 US children are being raised by single parents


ratio of mother-headed families

- 2 out of 5 of these children live under the poverty line


Parenting Styles: Diana Baumrind (1927)

- the essence of the 3 parenting styles defined in relation to two elements:
1. parental responsiveness vs. parental unresponsiveness
2. parental demandingness vs parental undemandingness


Parenting Styles: started as original 3 AAP and later added a 4th - N

1. the authoritative parenting style
2. the authoritarian parenting style
3. the permissive parenting style
4. the neglectful parenting style (Elinor maccoby and Jacob Martin, 1983)


parental responsiveness vs. parental unresponsiveness

responsiveness describes "the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self regulation, and self assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to children's special needs and demands" (baumrind, 1991)
- about how much or how little parents meet and respond to their children's needs


parental demandingness vs. parental undemandingness

"the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys" (baumrind, 1991)
- demandingness = control
- the demandingness continuum (high vs. low) describes the level of behavior control parents exercise on their kids based on their expectations of 'mature' behavior


authoritative parenting style:

- best possible child rearing style
- parents rank high on both nurturance and discipline, providing both love and clear family rules


authoritarian parenting style:

- parents provide plenty of rules but rank low on child-centeredness, stressing unquestioning obedience


permissive parenting style:

- parents provide few rules but rank high on child-centeredness, being extremely loving but providing little discipline


rejecting-neglecting parenting style:

- worst child-rearing approach
- parents provide little discipline and little nurturing or love


resilient children

rebound from serious early life traumas (parental alcoholism, addictions, abuse and divorce etc) to construct successful adult lives.
- graduating from college now a key factor


resilient children qualities:

- superior emotional regulation skills
- outgoing personality
- special talent
- high self efficacy and optimistic world view and realistic
- strong faith or sense of meaning in life
- at least one warm, loving relationship perhaps a mentor
- good "genes": easy temperament, superior intellectual, and social skills
- can put regrets in the past
- learns "some how" to trust later in life and leaves the past in the past and builds an independent successful and prosocial life.
- tends to be good in a relationship and or marriage


How much do parents matter? Harris

Judith Harris: rather than parents, our peers socialize us to become adults
- learning is context specific
- acculturation: immigrants assimilate to new culture


How much do parents matter? Scarr

Sandra Scarr (1997): given reasonable adequate parenting, children grow up to express their genetic fate


How much do parents matter? Erikson

Erik Erikson (1982): some children rebound in spite of uncaring or negative parenting models and find a "self selected like parent" that is a good guide to mentor them to success rebuilding trust and hence, all other positive polars.


How much do parents mater? Scott

Scott - in my experiences, I have witnessed just as many bad as good parents and somehow most of their kids survive and do "well" in all economic levels. perhaps it is in spite of their parenting that the kids chose to be good parents or just good people.


Corporal punishment:

the use of physical force to discipline a child


how many nations have banned corporal punishment?

- 24 nations


spanking in the US

- most believe spanking is acceptable in the us
- illegal at day care, elementary and preschools and sports
- 1 in 10 parents admit to often spanking
- more common is "time out" and removal of privileges


Problems with punishment: B.F. Skinner

- Science and Human Behavior (1953) w/ other researchers cite that spanking and physical or emotional abuse
1. doesn't teach or promote alternative, acceptable behavior
2. may produce undesirable results such as hostility, passivity, and fear or hatred of punisher
3. likely to be temporary
4. will model aggression (92.5% spousal abusers were abused)
5. does not change behavior
6. time out is the only punishment that works with the possibility of positive reinforcement and is used by sports, schools, and even dog training
7. behavioral research shows that if punisher waits for 10 seconds, they will not spank, hit because the behavior is out of frustration and lack of self control, skinner (1953)


What do psychologists suggest about punishment?

- use other techniques like "time out" or remove the child from the scene or yourself
- control the frustration
- teach to meditate
- by laws, school and sport rules, he can't and shouldn't hit any others
- apa research in 2016 - 95.2% of college grads surveyed reported that even though they consistently or even once were hit (physically punished) in their child and adolescent hood said that they will never hit their children or animal
- we learn by mistakes and should be shown the right way to handle problems


Stop child Abuse

- parents/people: stop slaps, swats, hits, beating of kids. get in control of your self


stopping child abuse: prove research methods

- pain alters behavioral response: snap a rubber band on your wrist/pinch yourself, if you want to or feel as if you will his a child. behavioral response.
- close your eyes, imagine someone is telling you what your child is about to hear, nobody like rejection or being hurt
- put yourself in a time out response chair or situation
- splash cold water on your face
- remember that any source of hitting does not change behavior. it's an outcry of adult frustration and 90% of the time, the child wasn't the source. abusing is a deadly habit.
- take a deep breath, count to ten, remember you are the adult (ten seconds will deter 91% of abuse situations)


child maltreatment:

any act that seriously endangers a child's physical or emotional well being


what is physical abuse?

bodily injury that leaves bruises