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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Deck (62)
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Emotion regulation

- personality and the emerging self
- relationships, friendship, play, popularity
- self-esteem, types of aggression, and bullying
- prosocial behavior


Jean Piaget's stage 3: concrete operational

- think abstractly about inner states (theory of mind)
- become less egocentric and more
- become more self-aware through self-reflection and comparison to others and begins to care what others think and can modify behavior to "fit in and be accepted" if they feel they cannot change (do not have confidence) to "fit in," they may find a group with negative influences where no one fits in and they do not have to exert the effort. sometimes


Erik Erikson's psychosocial stage 4: industry vs. inferiority

- industry: children feel that they can work toward a goal
- self esteem: based on the value the child places on a particular dimension or dimensions and how they feel about themselves and their capabilities or do they feel inferior comparatively speaking to others in their "same bracket" as Erikson said


Emotional regulation:

capacity to manage one's emotional state
- maturing frontal lobe contributes to development of self regulation abilities
- important for social and emotional success


problematic temperamental tendencies

- externalizing: a personality style that involves acting on one's immediate impulses and behaving disruptively and aggressively
- internalizing: a personality style that involves intense fear, social inhibition, and often depression


Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Stages of Psychosocial Dev.

Life stage:
- infancy (birth to 1yr)
- toddlerhood (1-2yrs)
- childhood (3-6yrs)

primary task:
- basic trust vs. mistrust
- autonomy vs. shame and doubt early initiative vs. guilt

- middle childhood (6rs to puberty)
- adolescence (teens into 20's)
- young adulthood (20s to early 40s)
- middle adulthood (40s to 60s)
- late adulthood (late 60s and beyond)

Industry vs. Inferiority
- indentity vs role confusion
- intimacy vs isolation
- generativity vs stagnation
- integrity vs despair


self awareness

the ability to observe our abilities and actions from an outside Frame of reference and to reflect on our inner state


self esteem

evaluating oneself as either "good" or "bad" as a result of comparing the self to other people


initiative vs guilt

erik Erikson's term for the preschool psychosocial task involving actively taking on life tasks


Susan Harter (1999)

- believed that when children reach concrete operations, they realistically evaluate their abilities and decide whether they like or dislike the person they see
- children draw on 5 areas to determine their self esteem: scholastic competence (academic talents), behavioral conduct (obedience or being "good"), athletic skills (performance at sports), peer likability (popularity), and physical appearance (look)


industry vs inferiority

erikson's term for the psychosocial task of middle childhood involving managing our emotions and realizing that real world success involves hard work


Susan Harter and self perception scale for children

Hart in 1985 designed a set of instruments for measuring self esteem in several age groups
- assesses self evaluations in specific domains and various stages of development
- children 8 yrs and older assesses opinions of overall worth and self evaluation in 5 critical domains:
1. scholastic competence
2. athletic competence
3. social acceptance
4. behavioral conduct
5. physical appearance
- children presented w/ two related statements, one describing a competent child and the other a less competent child. they answer if the statement is "really like me" or "sort of true for me" for 6 items in six areas
- examiners see a global self worth and differences from one domain to the next
- from the results examiners construct a profile of their self worth


Harter's self perception for children con't

global changes in self awareness
- 3 yr old self descriptions focus on external facts
- 4th grader's self descriptions are: internal and psychological, anchored in feelings, abilities, and inner traits

self esteem develops
- evaluating oneself as good or bad
- declines during early elementary school


learned helplessness

a state that develops when a person feels incapable of affecting the outcome of events, and so gives up without trying
- common in those with internalizing problems
- leads to depression


self esteem distortions
pt. 1

externalizing problems: child may exhibit unrealistically high self esteem
- emotional acting out
- real problem ignoring, lack of need to improve
- continued failure


self esteem distortions
pt. 2

internalizing problems: child may exhibit overly low self esteem
- overly self critical
- inflate failures
- see failure when it does not exist


enhance self efficacy

- mom is socializing her child to tackle challenging tasks and promoting feelings of competence by praising child for being such a "hard worker"
- I can succeed if I work hard (erikson's industry)
- be aware of vygotsky's zone of proximal development
- reinforce child's effort toward a realistic goal no matter how small (especially if it is building to a larger goal)
- insure Maslow's unconditional positive regard (UPR) not conditional as in most families
- ignore bad behaviors (John Locke and b. f. skinner) if not on your "5 never do list" like hitting someone else or being deceitful and never give physical punishment


promote accurate self perceptions

- set realistic goals using skinner's theory of shaping if goals are multi level and difficult to achieve (getting A's when child is at a C level or promoting behaviors that will gain friends)
- if child fails, gently give accurate feedback
- express care
- do not reinforce a child for merely "breathing" but reinforce when meaningful to promote more enhanced self efficacy and taking more psychological healthy risks


prosocial behavior

aspect of moral conduct that includes socially desirable behaviors such as sharing, helping and caring and cooperating; often used interchangeably with altruism by new researchers.
- appears as early as preschool
- more frequent in elementary school



feeling the exact emotion that another person is experiencing



a state necessary for acting prosocially, involving feeling upset for a person who needs help


doing good: prosocial behavior pt.1

individual and gender variations:
- fewer variations by sex when viewing scenes of strong human emotions (EEG findings)
- females may be more attuned to others' distress


doing good: prosocial behavior pt.2

decoding prosocial behavior in a deeper way:
- children need to mute empathetic feelings into sympathetic response
- superior information processing skills
- few or no externalizing or internalizing problems
- model altruism : "a motivational state with the goal of increasing another's welfare"


doing good: prosocial behavior pt.3

- to child's prosocial behavior
- attribute the kind act to the child's personality


doing good: prosocial behavior pt.4

- altruistic behavior and displays of empathy and sympathy


doing good: prosocial behavior pt.5

use inductive discipline:
- scaffold altruism
- intervene when child behaves in a hurtful, negative way


doing good: prosocial behavior pt.6

- prosocial behaviors in most important to parents: "do as I do and not merely what I say"



the ideal discipline style for socializing prosocial behavior, involving getting a child who has behaving hurtfully to empathy with the pain he has caused the other person



a feeling of being personally humiliated



feeling upset about having caused harm to a person or about having violated one's internal standard of behavior