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Flashcards in Ch. 9 Deck (40)
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- 322-384 BCE


Jean Jacques Rousseau

- 1760's confessions described the young as being infringed by depression and paranoia and borrow from German literature the term "Strum and Drang"


William Shakespeare

- used "strum and drang" to describe a time of storm and confusion in two of his works


G. Stanley Hall

- 1844-1924
- published Adolescence in 1904 and the beginning of the field of adolescence and borrowed "strum and drang" and used its translation of
storm and stress to describe adolescence and it stuck"



- recognized as a distinct stage of life in the 20th century and identified as the time when one goes to high school


1960s and 1970s led to what?

- more baby boomers teens who rejected conventional rules


adolescent culture

- due to increased high school attendance, intellectual skills of adolescence increased and advertising saw this is a lucrative market
- always spend more money than other age groups for everything from records/cds, cars, and houses


what did the Roosevelt administration do?

- implemented a national youth program to lure young people to school
- by 1939, 75% of all US teenagers were attending high school


Dr. E. Sowell

- 2007
- mapped the adolescent brain maturation with stratal magnetic resonance imaging to investigate structural changes to changing brain activation and cognitive abilities


Dr. Sowell's findings #1

- comical thinning over large regions of the dorsal, frontal and parietal lobes, and increased cortical thickness in primary language cortices in 3 cross sectional and longitudinal studies found enhanced language and cognitive capabilities


Dr. Sowell's findings #2

- the spatial and temporal pattern of results, with incomplete development of frontal cortices during adolescence, is consistent with observations of increased risk taking behaviors and perhaps being more prone to addictions


Dr. Sowell's findings #3

- relationships between cortical thickness and cognitive function on tests of general verbal intellectual functioning found cortical dissociations and improved adolescent phonological processing and motor skills


classic theories of teenage thinking: jean piaget

- formal operational stage (age 12) the ability to think abstractly takes a qualitative leap
- reasoning it at its pinnacle
- cognitive capabilities include flexibility and hypothetical and scientific abilities
- full cognitive adult human potential has been reached
- not universal; occurs mainly in western cultures


classic theories of teenage thinking: John flavell and metacognition

- knowledge of one's stores knowledge or perception as cognitive "thinking" agents


classic theories of teenage thinking: Lawrence kohlber's stages of moral judgement

- capable of developing moral code during adolescence; researched by analyzing responses to moral dilemmas


classic theories of teenage thinking: David elkind's adolescent egocentrism

- develops capability to logically manipulate concepts into one's mind


do all adolescents reach formal operations?

- no. formal operation reasoning only occurs in scientifically oriented western cultures. but even in our society most people don't make it to Piaget's final stage.


preconventional level (Lawrence Kohlberg)

- the lowest level of moral reasoning, in which people approach ethical issues by considering the personal punishments or rewards of taking a particular action


conventional level

- the intermediate level of moral reasoning, in which people respond to ethical issues by considering the need to uphold social norms


post conventional level

- the highest level of moral reasoning, in which people respond to ethical issues by applying their own moral guidelines apart from society's rules


carol Gilligan (feminist psychologist) argued what?

- late 20th century critique, she argued that Kohlberg's stages offer a specifically male-centered approach to moral thought. she believed that women's morality revolves around concrete, caring-oriented criteria


adolescent egocentrism (David Elkind)

- the tendency of young teenagers to feel that their actions are at the center of everyone else's consciousness


imaginary audience

- the tendency of young teenagers to feel that everyone is watching their every action; a component of adolescent egocentrism


personal fable

- the tendency of young teenagers to believe that their lives are special and heroic; a component of adolescent egocentrism


3 storm and stress sterotypes:

- adolescents being exceptionally socially sensitive (yes)
- being risk takers (yes)
- more emotionally intense than adults


experience sampling technique (mihaly csikzentmihalyi and reed Larson 1984)

- a research procedure designed to capture moment to moment experiences by having people carry pagers and take notes describing their activities and emotions whenever the signal sounds


nonsuicidal self injury

- 1 in 4 to 1 in 6
- cutting, burning, or purposely injuring one's body to cope with stress


which teens get into serious trouble?

- at risk teens tend to have prior emotion regulation problems, poor family relationships, and live in a risk taking environment


adolescence limited turmoil

- antisocial behavior that, for most teens, is specific to adolescence and does not persist into adult life


life course difficulties

- antisocial behavior that, for a fraction of adolescents, persists into adult life