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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Deck (69)
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Childhood substages: Piaget (2-7yrs)

Preoperational stage: development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, contraption, and egocentrism


Childhood substages: Erikson (2nd and 3rd yrs)

autonomy vs. shame and doubt: can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?


Childhood substages: Freud

anal stage: pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control


Childhood substages: Kohlberg

naive reward orientation: right and wrong is determined by what is rewarded.


early childhood

age 3 through kindergarten


middle childhood

elementary school


what sets us apart from other animals?

- ability to take another person's perspective
- mind reading skill (begins w/ joint attention)
- language
- memory


principles of physical growth

- cephalocaudal sequence: bodies elongate and lengthen
- mass to specific sequence: physical abilities become more coordinated and precise


two types of physical skills

1. gross motor skills: large muscle movement
2. fine motor skills: small coordinated movement


cerebral cortex

takes more than two full decades to mature


myelin sheath

fatty neural cover - grows into our twenties



the process of making billions of connections between neurons


frontal lobes

the area at the uppermost front of the brain, responsible for reasoning and planning our actions


slow growing frontal lobes

- frontal lobe development is on a delayed timetable
- as they mature throughout childhood and adolescence, our ability to think through, inhibit, and plan our actions gradually improves


selected motor skill milestones: at age 2

- picks up small objects w/ thumb and forefinger, feeds self w/ spoon
- walks unassisted
- rolls or flings ball


selected motor skill milestones: at age 3

- prints name
- walks w/o support
- tosses ball overhead w/ bent elbows


selected motor skill milestones: at age 4

- cuts paper; approximates circle


selected motor skill milestones: at age 6

- copies two short words
- hops on each food, still holding on
- catches and controls 10 inch ball with arms in front of body


main threat to growth and motor skills

- lack of food
- impairs gross and fine motor skills
- compromises the development of the bones, muscles, and brain
- undernutrition is the top ranking 21st century global physical threat
- APA 2017 causes depression


Childhood obesity

- monitored in the US by National Health and Nutrition Study (NHANES)
- assessed by BMI = ratio of weight to height
- overweight
> at or over the 85% for the norms
- obesity
> BMI at or above the 95th percentile compared to US norms


Global epidemic

- demographics differ within and between developed and developing worlds
- obesity in the developed world:
> children from low income families
> in US, more prevalent among latino and African American children
- obesity in the developing world:
> most prevalent in cities and among affluent boys and girls


"obesogenic" factors

- working parents w/ less time to prepare nutrition, sit down meals- very important in 2017
- oversized portions of foods: restaurant foods, large servings, and caloric content - supersize it and "he man dinners for kids"
- low cost, calorie dense food preferences
- lack of exercise; bidirectional effect (when children feel bad about their big clumsy bodies they withdraw from physical activity)
- healthy food costs more (CDC 2017)


epidemics epigenetic:

- obesity is partly epigenetic, pre-birth root
- events in womb and at birth may create obesity linked DNA changes
- rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is stronger predictor of later obesity; outweighs genetics predisposition
- fat cell development to age five and eat to maintain lifelong


obesity: Barriers to living a successful life

- within and between culture variations
- classic study in US demonstrated prejudiced attitudes toward obese peers by age 3 (pitrou and others)
- less harsh attitudes in some other cultures
- parental attitudes may affect unhealthy eating and obesity
- research shows fat is not beautiful, it is a killer. high rates of suicide and suicide ideation, borderline personality disorder, depression, and major health factors leading to death (ex: stroke)
- growing up, children do not like fat children. they get invited to less parties, last chosen or not chosen for class activity teams, and sports


limiting overweight

- provide education for pregnant women, not dieting
- limit excessive feeding during 1st year of life
- understand limiting intake is difficult for overweight children
- provide obesity control that are not perceived as insulting or damaging to child's self esteem


Jean Piaget & Theory of Cognitive Dev.

intellectual development occurs
- physical action on world
- inner timetable and they will learn when cognitively ready
- children explore and learn on their own when provided ample materials
- thought evolves in stages through universal processes


Preoperational thinking

in Piaget's theory, the type of cognition characteristic of children aged 2 to 7, marked by an inability to step back from one's immediate perceptions and think conceptually.


Concrete operational thinking

in Piaget's framework, the type of cognition characteristic of children aged 8 to 11, marked by the ability to reason about the world in a more logical, adult way


Piaget's stages: stage 1 (birth to 2 years)

sensorimotor period: coordination of sensory input and motor responses; development of object permanence
- coordinate sense w/ motor output
- sucking and mouth is critical


Piaget's stages: stage 2 (2 to 7 years)

preoperational stage: development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, centration, and egocentrism.