Ch.16 Infection Control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.16 Infection Control Deck (41)
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1
Q

Define disease

A

absence of health caused by microbes

2
Q

What is an Infection?

A

growth of a microorganism on or in a host caused by pathogenic organisms

3
Q

What are the 3 functions of pathogens?

A
  • multiply in large numbers
  • cause tissue damage
  • secrete exotoxins (temp, nausea, vomitting, shock)
4
Q

What are the 4 types of pathogens?

A
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • fungi
  • protozoan parasites
5
Q

What does colonized mean?

A

person with infection that does not show symptoms

6
Q

Define bacteria

A
  • microscopic single celled organism

- reside in colonies

7
Q

What is morphology?

A

the size and shape of the bacterium determined by Gram staining

8
Q

What are the 3 general morphologies?

A
  • cocci/spheres
  • bacilli/rods
  • spheres
9
Q

What is the difference between the bacteria prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

A
  • prokaryotes lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

- eurokaryotes have a true nucleus

10
Q

What is a virus?

A
  • microscopic single celled
  • require host to survive
  • have DNA or RNA-not both
  • duplicate itself
  • not affected by antibiotics
11
Q

What is a virion?

A

a viral particle

12
Q

What are some examples of virions?

A
  • common cold
  • mono
  • herpes simplex
  • warts
13
Q

What is fungi?

A
  • eukaryote-has nucleus

- dimorphic- 2 forms yeast and mold

14
Q

What are the 4 common types of disease caused by fungi?

A
  • Superficial-discoloration of skin
  • Cutaneous- athletes foot
  • Subcutaneous- enters host through skin trauma
  • Systemic- enters circulatory and lymphatic system
15
Q

What is a parasitic protazoa?

A
  • unicellular organisms that are neither plants nor animals and live in or on other organisms and the expense of the host
  • can ingest food and some are equipped with a digestive system
16
Q

What happens at the Encounter stage of disease establishment?

A

the organism encounters host, encounters vary according to the host and the microorganism

17
Q

What happens at the Entry stage of disease establishment?

A

the organism gains entry via a portal either ingression or penetration

18
Q

Ingression entry is via:

A

food or water

19
Q

Penetration entry is via:

A

past the epithelium via a vector like fleas or mosquitoes

20
Q

What happens at the Spread stage of disease establishment?

A
  • propagation of infectious organism

- requires overcoming of hosts immune system and defenses

21
Q

What happens at the Multiplication stage of disease establishment?

A
  • the number of microbes must multiply before it is recognized
  • this is the incubation period where the hosts defenses are overcome
  • substantial population is acheived
22
Q

What are two outcomes of the Damage stage of disease establishment?

A

direct- causes cell death and releases toxins

indirect- changes hosts metabolism-life threatening

23
Q

What are 3 possible Outcomes of disease establishment?

A
  • elimination- host gains control
  • overcome- agent overcomes hosts immunity
  • compromise- host and agent live in symbiosis
24
Q

What are some examples of routes for disease transmission?

A
  • air
  • droplet
  • contact
  • exogenous
  • endogenous
25
Q

What is exogenous?

A

outside the body through direct or indirect vectors

26
Q

What is endogenous?

A

inside the body

27
Q

What is a nosocomial infection?

A

hospital acquired condition

28
Q

What is an iatrogenic infection?

A

an infection that is the result of intervention with a physician

29
Q

What factors encourage nosocomial infections?

A
  • environment
  • thereputic regimen
  • equipment
  • contamination during procedure
  • age- young…elderly
  • heredity
  • stress
  • personal choice
30
Q

What is a blood borne pathogen?

A

disease causing microorganism present in the human blood such as HIV HBV

31
Q

What are defenses of the body against microbes?

A
  • normal flora
  • chemotherapyy
  • immunization
32
Q

What are examples of environmental control against microbes?

A
  • asepsis

- chemical methods-disinfectants

33
Q

What are the two types of asepsis?

A

surgical and medical

34
Q

What is surgical asepsis?

A

procedure used to prevent contamination before during and after surgery using sterile technique

35
Q

What is medical asepis?

A

reduces the number of infectious agents by not making it conducive to grow and reproduce

36
Q

What is bactericidal?

A

kills microbes

37
Q

What is bacteriostatic?

A

inhibits growth

38
Q

What are standard precautions?

A

precautions to prevent the transmission of disease by body fluids and substances

39
Q

What is airborne precaution?

A

precaution against airborne diseases such as chicken pox and measles

40
Q

What is droplet precaution?

A

precautions against rubella, mumps, flu which are expelled from coughing sneezing and talking

41
Q

What is contact precaution?

A

used when caring for patients with hepatitis, impetitis