What is Homeostasis?
constancy in the internal environment of the body naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival
What are mechanisms of homeostasis?
temperature, electrolytes, respiration rate, blood pressure, pulse, mental alertness
What is body temperature?
measurement of the degree of heat of the deep tissues of the human body
What is a normal body temperature?
98.6F with a 1-2 degree difference
What types of thermometers are available?
digital, mercury, tempanic, temporal
Where can thermometers be placed to measure temperature?
orally, tempanic (ear), temporal (forehead), rectally, axillary
What is the most used form of measuring temperature?
What is the most accurate temperature reading received?
What are the ranges of temperature based on where the reading was taken?
oral- 98.6 tempanic- 97.6 temporal- 100 rectal- 99.6 axillary- 97.6
What is febrile?
having a fever
What is Hyperthermia?
abnormally high body temperature
How long does a thermometer need to stay in place to get a reading?
20 seconds to 3 minutes
What is Hypothermia?
abnormally low body temperature
What are common symptoms of hyperthermia?
confusion, dizziness, comatose
Why is hypothermia used medically?
To decrease the bodies metabolic demands and thereby decreasing the demand on the cardiovascular system during heart surgery
What is tidal volume?
the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during one respiratory cycle
What is a normal respiratory rate for adults?
12-20 per minute
What is the normal respiration rate for children under 10?
What is the normal respiration rate for newborns?
What is orthopnea?
Difficulty breathing while laying down
What is a pulse pound?
when the left ventrical contracts and pushes blood out
What is auscultation?
use of a stethescope to hear beats
What is a normal pulse for adults?
60-100 beats per minute
What is the normal pulse for children?
70-120 beats per minute
What is a pulse oximeter?
it is used to continuously measure pulse with a light emitting probe placed on ann earlobe, forhead and most commonly the first digit
What is tachycardia?
Pulse over 100 beats/minute caused by exercise, fever, nerves, CHF, anemia, hypoxia
What is bradycardia?
pulse under 60 beats/minute caused by pain, hypothermia, being fit, medications, sedatives
What is systolic pressure?
When the heart is at its peak pressure and is contracted- ejection phase-first sound heard
What is diastolic pressure?
Heart at rest-relaxed- complete filling-when sound is no longer heard
What is used to measure blood pressure?
Sphygmomanometer and stethescope
What is the proper placement of the blood pressure cuff?
over brachial artery 1/2 way between the shoulder and elbow
What is a Korotkof sound?
turbulent blood flow
How is blood pressure recorded?
millimeters per mercury- mmHg
What is normal blood pressure?
What is a hypertensive blood pressure?
What is a hypotensive blood pressure?
95/60mmHg-low blood pressure