What is Oxygen?
a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas that plays a critical rolw in efficient cellular metabolism
Is oxygen flammable?
No, it does however support combustion and constitutes 21% of atmospheric gas
What is hypoxemia?
Decreased oxygen tension (concentration) in the blood.
How does homeostasis and oxygen relate?
When O2 levels become low the metabolic rate is compromised and the pt’s homeostasis is altered. Accordingly the pt’s cardiopulmonary system has to adapt to maintain homeostasis.
What are indications for oxygen therapy?
the primary clinical indications are to correct hypoxemia or possible tissue hypoxia, also to minimize increased cardiopulmonary workload (increased heart rate, BP, and respiratory rate))
What is hypoxia?
inadequate amount of o2 at the cellular (tissue) level
What are symptoms of hypoxia?
shortness of breath, work harder to breath, increased heart rate, high bp, larger depth of breathing
Who can administer oxygen?
It is a drug and must be prescribed by a physician according to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1962
What is the goal of oxygen therapy?
to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation while maintaining the cardiopulmonary work
What are the types of oxygen devices?
oxygen flowmeter, pressure manometer, low flow devices, high flow devices
What is a pulse dose?
delivers a fixed volume of o2 supply during breathing, based on a pt’s rate of breathing, delivered during inspiration
What is a demand device?
a variable volume of o2 dose- delivered duringlength of pt’s inspiration
What are the types of low flow oxygen devices?
Nasal cannula- Simple O2 mask- Rebreathing mask- Non-rebreathing mask
Describe a nasal cannula
- the most popular
- sits inside nostrils
- up to 6LPM
- 24-36% O2
Describe a Simple O2 mask
- mask covers pt’s nose and mouth
- greater than 6LPM
- 35-50% O2
- short term O2 therapy
Describe a Non-rebreathing mask
- masks with a bag attached
- one way valve ensure only O2 is being rebreathed
- no less than 10LPM
- 60-80% O2
What are the types of High flow oxygen devices?
nebulizer, air entrapment mask
Describe a Nebulizer
- provides an aerosol mist using a aerosol mask, tracheostomy mask, or t-piece adapter
- at least 8LPM
- 28-100% O2
- filled with .45 saline, .9 normal saline, and sterile water
What is the most important thing to look out for when using a nebulizer?
it is important to make sure that the tubing is down due to the build up of condensation in the corrugated tubing so that it is not aspirated
Describe the air entrapment mask
- propels a high velocity of source oxygen through thin tubing to the mask
- results with room air being drawn into the mask
- various LPM
- 24-50% O2
What oxygen devices are used in pediatrics?
oxyhood and oxygen tent
What is an oxyhood?
plastic box, used mostly on infants, that fits over the head to deliver 02
- less than or = to 7LPM
- 21-100% O2
What is an oxygen tent?
- covers the child’s bed
- 8-12 LPM
- 40-50% 02
What is a ventilator?
- used when a pt’s cardiopulmonary system in unable to supply adequate oxygen to the tissues
- pt may have an artificial airway inserted into the trachea which is then attached to the ventilator
- delivers a consistent Fi02