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Flashcards in CH3 Deck (35):
1

______ refers to the way of life shared by a group of people- the knowledge, beliefs, values, rules or laws, language, customs, symbols, and material products within a society that help meet human needs.

Culture

2

_____ is an organized and interdependent group of individuals who live together in a specific geographic area who interact more with each other than they do with outsiders and who cooperate for the attainment of common goals.

Society

3

Premodern societies are held together by _______ ______, or cohesion and integration based on the similarity of individuals in the group, including beliefs, values, and emotional ties between members of the group.

Mechanical Solidarity

4

Postmodern societies are held together by organic solidarity which is the cohesion and integration based on differences of individuals in the group so that they are interdependent. The society has a large and specialized division of labor.

Organic Solidarity

5

_____-_____ ______ are societies in which people rely on vegetation and animals ocuring naturally in their habitat.

Hunter-gatherer societies

6

_____ ____ have food-producing strategies based on domestication of anmals, whose care is the central focus of their activities.

Hearding Societies

7

__________ are those in which the food-prducing strategy is based on domestication o plants.

Horticltural Societies

8

________ _____rely on raising crops for food but make us of technological advances.

Agricultural Societies

9

_______ _____ rely primarily on mechanized production for subsistence, resulting in greater division of labor based on expertise.

Industrial Societies

10

________ ______ are those that have moved from human labor and manufacturing to automated production and service jobs.

Postindustrial Society

11

_________ is the tendency to view one's own group and its cultural expectations as right, proper and superior to others.

Ethnocentrism

12

_______ ______ requires setting aside cultural and personal belies and prejudices to understand another group or society through the eyes of a member of that community using its own standards.

Cultural Relativism

13

______ ________ includes all the object we can see or touch including the artifacts of a group of people.

Material Culture

14

________ ____ includes our thoughts, language, feelings, beliefs, vales, and attitudes that make up much ofour cultre

Nonmaterial Culture

15

_____ are shared judgmets about what is desirable or undesirable, right or wrong, good or bad.

Values

16

______ are more specific ideas we hold about life, about the way society works, and about where we fit into the world.

Beliefs

17

_______ ____ are practices, beliefs, and values that are regarded as most desirable in society and are consciously taught to children.

Ideal Culture

18

_____ _____ are the ways things in a society are actually done.

Real Culture

19

_____ are rules or behaviors share by members of a society and rooted in the value system.

Norms

20

______ are norms that most members observe because they have great moral significance in society.

Mores

21

______ are the strongest form of mores. They concern actions considered unthinkable or unspeakable in the culture.

Taboos

22

___ are norms that have been formally encoded by those holding political power in society.

Laws

23

_______ reinforce norms though rewards and penalties.

Sanctions

24

______ ______ are rewards or punishments conferred by recognized officials to enforce the most important norms.

Formal Sanctions

25

______ ____ are unofficial rewards or punishments such as smiles, frowns, or ignoring unacceptable behaviors.

Informal Sanctions

26

_____ is the foundation of every culture. It conveys verbal and non-verbal messages among members of society.

Language

27

The ______ _____ _____ posits that the people who speak a specific language make interpretations of their reality they notice certain thing and may fill to notice certain other things.

Linguistic Relativity Theory

28

__________ are groups that affect only a small segment of one's life or influence a limited period of one's life.

Microcultures

29

A _______ is the culture of a meso-level subcommunity that distinguishes itself from the dominant culture of the larger society.

Subculture

30

A _________ is a group with expectations and values that contrast sharply with the dominant values of a particular society

Counterculture

31

The ______ _____ is a population of people, usually living within a specified geographic area who are connected by common ideas, cooperate for the attainment of common goals and are subject to a particular political authority.

National Society

32

A ______ _____ is common values and beliefs that tie citizens of a nation together.

National Culture

33

_________ refers to the process by which the entire world is becoming a single sociocultural entity.

Globalization

34

____ ___ includes behavioral standards, symbols, values, and material objects that have become common across the globe.

Global Culure

35

The ______ _____ _ ________ is the process by which individuals and groups shape reality through social interactions.

Social Construction of Reality