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Flashcards in Ch4 Deck (95):
1

Data and statistical analysis

There are a few reasons as to why it matters. We don't want to rely on our? Or? Evaluations of situations

In an experiment we want to see that a particular manipulation of an ? causes the change in the ? across a range of individuals

Intuition, qualitative



IV and DV

2

statistics are not hard

It is about which numbers to compare and how to do it

the math is?
Also we have computers to do the math anyway


Statistics are one of the most important parts of? And all other social and ??

Arithmetic

(Psychology) and natural sciences

3

The ways in which we all understand statistics already

1. Class grades are? Of course we received for test another efforts

2. Some grades are based off a curve which require normal? And standard?

3. Grades of the SAT were present in percentiles

Averages

Normal distributions and standard deviations

4

Good research required valid, reliable, and accurate data


1.? validity- the degree to which findings can be generalized to other people, bedding, or situation

2. ? Validity -the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the IV and not to confounds

3. ? Validity date the extent to which ? Variables measure what they are supposed to measure

External validity, internal validity, construct validity

5

The degree to which a Measure is stable and for the overtime

Reliability

6

The degree to which an experiment measure is free of error

Accuracy

7

Statistics that Summarize the data collected in a summary

Scripture statistics

8

A measure that represent the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole

Central tendency

9

A measure of central tendency that is the mathematical average of a set of numbers


You add all numbers and that would be your name

Mean

10

The middle value is the what and the single most common value is what

Median and mode

11

? are when there are a few cases that are massively different then the rest.? Make the mean, median, and mode different from one another.

Outliers for both

12

In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed are the values are from each other and from the mean. You will learn if people were mostly the same or if they varied.

What is this term?

Variability

13

What are the two measures of variance?

1. ??- A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean.


2.?-The distance between the largest volume and the smallest.

Standard deviation, range

14

1.?- A graphical depictions of the relationship between two variables


2.??- a descriptive statistics that indicates the strength of the relationships between two variable and varies between -1.0 and +1.0

Scatterplot.



Correlation coefficient.

15

A psychological state called locked-in syndrome compared to being ??

mistaken to be a coma; some people in comas are ?

buried alive



conscious

16

even when people don't appear to be they can be?

conscious for both

17

there are 2 ways through which people can manipulate consciousness. what are they?

drugs and meditation

18

Is consciousness subjective or objective?

sub

19

what is the view that supports that the mind is distinct from the brain yet many psychologist reject this view and believe they are inseparable

dualism (Rene Descartes)

20

? and ? often go hand in hand

attention and consciousness

21

participant receives a diff auditory message in one ear they are to repeat or shadow only one message. what is this called?

given the ignored input many extracted meaning but did not process the word consciously ex: "river" "bank" throwing money at the bank

shadowing

22

a failure to notice large changes in one's environment

change blindness

23

what hurts you and those around you in class?

technology using phone and laptop

24

occurs when an unconscious thought is suddenly expressed at an inappropriate time

Freudian slip

25

the processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awareness

advertisers have used this way of processing information to get people to purchase their products

subliminal perception/unconscious perception

26

? images of money produces produced brain activity in the limbic sys.- emotion and motivation

subliminal

27

awareness of diff aspects of the world is associated w fucntioning in diff parts of the brain

your ? lobe: I see things
? lobe: hear things
? lobe: understand plans
? lobe: aware of space
? lobe: all about movement

occipital




Temporal





Prefrontal





parietal





Frontal






28

brain research shows that some people in comas have higher brain activity levels than others

this understating is correlated with consciousness

29

the ? a person remains in a vegetative state the ?? it is they will regain brain activity and show consciousness

longer



less likely

30

If a person in a coma shows some evidence of being aware of his surroundings the condition is known as?

minimal conscious state

31

when are brain activity and other physiological processes regulated into patterns?

during circadian rhythms

32

many regions of the brain are more active during ?

sleep

33

circadian rhythms are influenced by the cycles of ? and ?. they are also known to be intervals of time of day

light and dark

34

what happens when we sleep?
1. info about light detected by the eyes is sent to (a small region) the ? nucleus
2. the region then sends signals to the ?


3. which secretes ? a hormone that travels in the bloodstream affecting many receptors in the body and the brain

suprachiasmati nucleus



pineal



melatonin

35

? rhythms are affected by taking of melatonin to help with jet lag also helps people sleep

circadian

36

sleep is affected by psychological disorders like?

depression

37

this machine measures the brain's electrical activity shown as beta waves


when people really focus their attention on something (close their eyes/ relas) brain activity becomes more regular and the waves produced are known as ? waves

EEG electroencephalogram



alpha

38

Sleep disorders (like?) lead to a persons mental health and ability to function to weaken because of their disorder.

insomnia

39

some people experience ? in which they dream they aren't sleeping yet their EEG's indicate they are and if awoken they will refuse they have been asleep

pseudoinsomnia

40

disorder where one stops breathing while asleep the throat closes which results in awakenings

it is associated with middle aged men and obesity

obstructive sleep apnea

41

experiencing an episode of falling asleep during the day is? the most used treatments used for this condition are drugs that act as ?.

? behavior ? is the opp of that^, the normal acts that accompany REM are disabled, no treatment exist. sleepers act out their dreams striking their partners

narcolepsy




stimulants



REM behavior disorder

42

sleep is is crucial for 3 functions

1. ?
2. ? ?
3. ? of ?

restoration


circadian rhythms



facilitation of learning

43

long periods of sleep deprivation causes ?? and ?? performance

mood problems



decreases cognitive performance

44

? rhythms helps animals become inactive during the night when danger is increased.

we sleep at night bc our ancestors were more at risk in the ?



? sleep promotes the development of brain circuits for learning

circadian





dark


REM

45

Products of altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused w reality

dreams

46

Dreams occur in ? sleep and in ???

the 1st kind of dreams are: very bizarre involve emotions and auditory, pain, taste, smell
ex: an affair
then the 2nd: are more dull (very realistic)
ex: taking notes in class or deciding what to wear.

sleep facilitates ?

REM


non-REM sleep




learning

47

?? theory of dreaming that state the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity by synthesizing (combining/uniting) with stored memories

activation synthesis theory

48

when people ?: the brain goes through several cycles of diff stages which have diff patterns of ?

sleep

wavelengths

49

dreams are a way of making sense of ?? patterns

neural firing

50

? is a social interaction where a person responds to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action.

hypnosis

(posthypnotic suggestions)

51

The ? test: naming the color in which the word is printed

stroop

52

this form of hypnosis is used for pain reduction ??

hypnotic analgesia

53

A person can be taught ?? to improve recovery from surgery. It may work more by changing6665 a patient's interpretation of pain by diminishing it

self-hypnosis

54

a practice that focus your attention on your breathing lets you thoughts flow freely

It can also improve our health, lower our blood, stress reduction, change in lifestyle choices such as their diet and health

meditation

55

losing ones self in activities
1. ?: listening to music
2. ?: religious ecstasy - decreases awareness of the outside world and creates feelings of euphoria (happiness) and/or runner's high
3. "?"- the activity is absorbed and completely satisfying

exercise



religious


flow

56

? and ? suggestions can alter how people react even though they are no aware that a suggestion was made

hypnotic



posthypnotic

57

Participants under hypnosis who were told that they would not see real words did not show the stroop effect

TRUE


58

Drug use that remains compulsive despite its negative consequences

Addiction

59

? drugs are mind altering substances people take recreationally. They imitate brain's natural neurotransmitters (through drugs like MJ) or changing the activity of particular neurotransmitter receptors.

Psychoactive

60

? increase behavioral and mental activity, increase heart rate and blood pressure, and they disrupt sleep: amphetamines, methamphetamine, and cocaine are ? stimulants



? and ? are mild stimulants

stimulants



potent



nicotine and caffeine

61

what contributes to the liking aspect of addiction: ? and ?

dopamine and endorphines

62

? is the most widely used depressant

alcohol

63

opiates: ? , ? and ? producing intense pleasure similar to an orgasm

heroin






codeine



morphine

64

? or ? alter cognition, mood, and perception. Changes how users experience the world around them.






The most common form is ?

Hallucinogens



psychedelics




LSD lysergic acid diethylamide

65

? and ? increase dopamine in the synapse. their primary effect is to reduce fatigue. Used for weight loss and to stay awake.


What are the neg side effects?
1. ?
2. ?
3. potential for ?





Amphetamines and methamphetamine






insomnia


anxiety





addiction


66

Legitimate reasons for amphetamines are ? and of ?

narcolepsy

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder ADHD

67

Methamphetamine breaks down into ?

It stays in the body and brain ?? than cocaine and so its effects are ?

It causes damage in frontal and temporal lobes, the limbic system, reasoning why users lack memory and emotion. Also causes considerable ? damage.

Amphetamine


much longer



prolonged



physical

68

? users experience wave of confidence, feel good, alert, energetic, sociable, and wide awake. producing these effects by increasing the concentration of ? in synapses

cocaine

dopamine

69

? activates GABA receptors, which leads to inhibits on neural activity which reasons why it is relaxing.
GABA receptors are why our motor coordination is slowed, our reaction time and slurred speech results

ALCOHOL

70

Women generally have smaller body volumes and do not metabolize alcohol reasoning why men are twice as likely to report ??

alcohol abuse (binge-drinking)

71

? is anything that seems to be a "real" medical treatment -- but isn't. It could be a pill, a shot, or some other type of "fake" treatment. What all ? have in common is that they do not contain an active substance meant to affect health.

placebo affect


placebos

72

MJ can have all 3 type of affects
1. stimulant
2.?
3. ?

depressant




hallucination

73

? produces an energizing effect similar to that of stimulants. Also causes slight hallucinations. Know to be ecstasy or molly. It is associated with ? dopamine activity and more ? activity


Growing evidence is showing it may have beneficial outcome treatment use for post ? stress disorder

MDMA



less




serotonin




traumatic

74

Addicted users who fail to ingest enough to achieve the same effect as before leads to ? also known as a physiological and psychological stat characterized by feelings of ?, tension, and ? for the drug.

withdrawal


anxiety

cravings

75

? produces an energizing effect similar to that of stimulants. Also causes slight hallucinations. Know to be ecstasy or molly. It is associated with ? dopamine activity and more ? activity

there have been deaths from this drug in raves and parties

Growing evidence is showing it may have beneficial outcome treatment use for post ? stress disorder

MDMA



less




serotonin




traumatic

76

People become addicted through ? activity in the limbic system. there is this other brain region called the ? which is also is a component in cravings. If damaged one will disengage from their addiction

dopamine






insula

77

drugs ? the release of a neurotransmitter.
they mimic a ? at the receptor. they are either a ? or a ?

increase,




neurotransmitter



stimulant or depressant

78

? include heroin, morphine, and codeine

opiates

79

? include cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, and amphetamines

stimulants

80

which was used in Coca cola

stimulants cocaine

81

distinctions between vegetative state and minimally conscious state- person in the ? state is more likely to regain full consciousness at some point

Minimally conscious

82

Joe falls asleep while playing piano-

narcolepsy

83

Emma walks through the house in the middle of the night

somnambulism

84

Sophine spends most of the night trying to sleep

insomnia

85

Ivan can't sleep properly bc his roommates snoring wakes him

apnea (breathless)

86

Sleep - all ? sleep
sleep. It is ? to resist indefinitely the urge to ?. animals die when deprived of sleep for extended periods

animals

impossible, sleep

die deprived

87

? is classified as a stimulant

cocaine

88

Long term use of opiates (narcotics) always leads to addiction T/F

FALSE

89

Nicotine and caffeine are stimulants

TRUE

90

Methamphetamine and MDMA (ecstasy) decrease dopamine levels

False

91

gender gap in alcohol consumption is increasing

FALSE

92

there are two misleading correlations 1. regression toward the?

and 2. ? correlation

mean



illusory

93

When is an observed difference reliable?
1. when representative samples are ? than biased samples.
2. ?? observations are more reliable than those are more variable.
3. More cases are better than ?

Better





less-variable



fewer

94

Brain imaging showed that hypnosis changes brain activity in ways that do not support the idea that people are simply role playing

T

95

Escaping the self offers health benefits equal to meditation

F