Ch.9 Language & Thought Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Psychology > Ch.9 Language & Thought > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.9 Language & Thought Deck (37):
1

Language

System for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning

2

Grammar

Set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages

3

Phonemes

Smallest units of sound recognizable as speech rather than as random noise

4

Phonological Rules

How phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds

5

Morphemes

Smallest meaningful units of language

6

Morphological Rules

Indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words

7

Content Morphemes

Things and events

8

Function Morphemes

grammatical functions

9

Syntactical Rules

Indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences

10

Deep Structure

Meaning of a sentence

11

Surface Structure

How a sentence is worded

12

Fast Mapping

Children map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure

13

Telegraphic Speech

Devoid of function morphemes and consist mostly of content words

14

Nativist Theory

Language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity

15

Langauge Acquisition Device

Collection of processes that facilitate language learning

16

Genetic Dysphasia

Syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence

17

Aphasia

Difficulty in producing or comprehending language

18

Broca's Area

Left frontal cortex involved in the production of the sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages

19

Wernicke's Area

Left temporal cortex involved in language comprehension

20

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

Language shapes the nature of thought

21

Family Resembalance

Features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member

22

Prototype Theory

Psychological theories are best described as organized around prototypes

23

Exemplar Theory

We make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category

24

[Lecture] Parsing Problem

Problem of separating and identifying potential words to learn

25

[Lecture] Reference Problem

Problem of how to take a word and connect it to object

26

[Lecture] Social Referencing

Children will look at the eyes and see where the eyes are looking

27

[Lecture] Novelty Matching

Attaching name to things that still do not have a name

28

[Lecture] Intentionality & Pedagogy

Direct eye contact and then deliberately demonstrate action

29

[Lecture] Whole Object Assumption

Match words to another candidate whole object

30

[Lecture] Category Assumption

e.g. Different balls

31

[Lecture] Phonology

Words to sounds

32

[Lecture] Semantics

Ideas to words

33

[Lecture] Categorical Perception

Tuned to a narrow boundary to discriminate phonemes

34

[Lecture] Syntax

Stringing individual words to create meaning

35

[Lecture] Noam Chomsky

Universal grammar--we all have one human language:
(1) all languages have identifiable subjects, verbs and objects
(2) all languages have similar arrangement
(3) rules and words are separable

36

[Lecture] Pragmatics

Focused on the practical use of language

37

[Lecture] Implicature

Implication goes beyond literal meaning