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Flashcards in Chap 17 Deck (94):
1

What is the most common Penile malformation?

Hypospadias (ventral surface )

2

What is it called if the urethral orfice is on the dorsal surface?

Epispadias

3

Inflammation on the glans penis =

Balanitis

4

Inflammation on the prepuce =?

Balanoposthitis

5

What it the inability to retract the prepuce?

Phimosis (MC acquired)

6

What is entrapment of a retracted foreskin behind the coronal sulcus ?

Paraphimosis

7

What are 95% of penile neoplasms?

Squamous cell carcinoma

8

What are risks for penile neoplasms?

Over 40, uncircumcised, poor hygiene, HPV, AIDS, smoking

9

What is Bowen disease?

Penile neoplasm, solitary, on shaft

10

Invasive SCC penile neoplasm is most common where?

Glans or prepuce

11

What are symptoms of police neoplasms?

Abnormal texture, pain, erythema, fails to heal

12

What is a gray, crusted, handed, raised lesion on the penis, with irregular boarders?

Invasive SCC

13

What is a penectomy?

Partial or total removal or part of the penis

14

What is an increase of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis?

Hydrocele

15

What is the most common cause of scrotal enlargement?

Hydrocele

16

What is hematocele?

Blood in the scrotum

17

What is chylocele?

Lymph in the scrotum

18

What can chylocele lead to?

Filariasis (elephantiasis)

19

What transmits filariasis?

Flies, mosquitos, Arthropoda

20

What disease causes filariasis?

Wuchereria bancrofti

21

What percent of newborns have cryptorchidism?

1%

22

What is a main symptom of cryptorchidism?

Testicular atrophy by age 5-6. (Leads to sterility) unilateral or bilateral

23

What is the increased cancer risk for testicular cancer in cryptorchidism?

3-5 times

24

What are symptoms of orchiitis?

Pain, bloody ejaculation, edema

25

What are symptoms of epididymitis?

Pain fever, MC unilateral

26

How does orchiitis or epididymitis begin?

As a UTI

27

What are two things that can cause orchiitis or epididymitis?

MUMPS and TB (mumps leads to necrosis and sterility (20%)

28

What is spermatic cord twisting?

Testicular torsion

29

What type of testiuclar torsion is most common?

Adult (12-18)

30

What sign is associated with adult testicular torsion?

Bell-clapper deformity

31

Is testiular torsion painful or no?

Yes (acute pain)

32

What much testicular torsion spontaneously resolve?

1/3 (surgery if not better in 6 hours)

33

What is an enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus of the scrotum?

Varicocele

34

What should you consider the problem in varicocele?

Renal cell carcinoma

35

What age rage do we see testicular neoplasia?

14-34

36

What are risks for testicular neoplasia?

Cryptorchidism (10%), fam history (brother with it 8-10 more risk), white people, gonadal dysgenesis

37

What testicular neoplasm is benign ?

Sex cord stromal tumors

38

Sex cord stromal tumors come from what cells?

Sertoli and leydig cells

39

What is a malignant testicular neoplasia?

Germ cell tumors (GCTs)

40

What makes up 95% of most post pubertal testicular tumors?

Germ cell tumors

41

What is the most favorable germ cell tumor?

Seminomas

42

What testicular tumor has a soft texture, grey-white and well demarcated.

Seminomas

43

What do cells in seminomas look like?

Large, uniform, round nuclei

44

At what age do you see embryo all carcinoma?

20-30 (indistinguishable boarders, invasive, anaplastic) no tumor marker

45

What Nonseminomatous GCT would we likely see at age 3?

Yolk sac tumor

46

What Nonseminomatous GCT is characterized by increased hCG, and is small?

Choriocarcinoma

47

What nonseminomatous GCT is a firm mass with all 3 germ cell layers and seen at allllll ages?

Teratoma

48

What type of testicular cancer is easily palpable and large, well contained mass with late mets?

Seminomas

49

What form of testicular cancer is small and less palpable, with ear leer mets to liver and lungs, may have lymphatic or hematogenous mets?

Nonseminomatous GCT

50

Is testiular cancer painful or painless ?

Painless***

51

What Nonseminomatous GCT is undifferentiated and has Indistinct boarders?

Embryonal carcinoma

52

What are the two key features with testicular cancer?

Painless and translucent

53

What form of testicular cancer is radio sensitive ?

Seminomas

54

What form of prostate cancer is found in the peripheral zone?

Carcinomas

55

What from of prostate lesion is found in the transitional zone?

Hyperplasia

56

What is the cause of most prostatitis?

Chronic non bacterial (90-95)

57

Bacterial (acute and chronic) account for what percent of prostatitis?

10% (2-5% each)

58

What is another name for chronic non bacterial prostatitis?

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome

59

How is chronic non bacterial prostatitis diagnose?

NIH outcome measures, DRE, sequential specimens

60

Where are common locations for infectious spread of prostatitis?

Blood, lymph, urethra/bladder, rectum

61

Where does Benign prostatic hyperplasia occur?

Traditional zone

62

What Percent of males 70 or older have benign prostatic hyperplasia?

90%

63

What percent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is asymptomatic ?

10%

64

What are treatments for BPH?

Watchful waiting, FLOWMAX, dth inhibition TURP

65

What does benign prostatic hyperplasia look like?

Has nodules that are well circumscribed

66

What are side effects of TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate)

Incontinence, erectile dysfunction

67

Are most people likely do die from or die with prostate cancer?

Die with

68

Prostate cancer makes up what percent

30%

69

Most prostate cancer is aggressive true or false?

False most is indolent

70

The majority of prostate cancer is what kind?

Adenocarcinomas

71

Where are most (80% of prostate cancer located ?

Peripheral zone

72

What is the most common age group for prostate cancer?

65-75

73

Where does prostate cancer MET to?

Osteoblasts can to the axial skeleton

74

What is a screening technique for prostate cancer?

PSA (not specific to prostate cancer) lots of false positives

75

What are treatments for prostate cancer?

Watch and wait, prostatectomy, radiation, anti antigen therapy

76

What is dilation of the renal pelvis/calyces?

Hydronephrosis

77

What is the most common form of hydronephrosis?

Congenital (atresia in male patients)

78

What form of hydronephrosis my be clinically silent?

Acquired unilateral

79

A renal calculus (stone) is most commonly made of what?

Calcium oxalate

80

Where is pain found with kidney stones?

2-3m in size, pain in ureter, flank, groin, intermittent and severe

81

What is an upper urinary tract stone that is massive and looks like the cast of the renal pelvis?

Stag horn calculus

82

What are stag horn calculi made of? (Struvite Stone)

Magnesium ammonium phosphate

83

What is the most common cause of staghorn calculi?

Recurrent infections

84

What are symptoms of vit A deficiency ?

Kidney stones, bitot spots

85

What is a blind ended pouch in the bladder wall that is most commonly acquired?

Diverticulum

86

Most diverticulum of the bladder look like what?

Small and asymptomatic

87

Cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder) is a bacterial infection that causes pain in what area?

Supra pubic pain, pee a lot, painful sex

88

A lower UTI may cause what?

Cystitis

89

What is the name of most bladder cancer called (90%) ?

Urothelial carcinoma

90

What bladder cancer is less common and associated with Schistosoma infections? (Egypt)

Squamous cell carcinoma

91

What acquired gene mutation is associated with bladder cancer?

TP53

92

What are risks for bladder cancer?

50-80 males, industrial ares, smoking, occupational carcinogens

93

What are features of bladder cancer?

Painless hematuria, high recurrence

94

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Radical cystectomy, chemo