Flashcards in Chap 17 Deck (94):
What is the most common Penile malformation?
Hypospadias (ventral surface )
What is it called if the urethral orfice is on the dorsal surface?
Inflammation on the glans penis =
Inflammation on the prepuce =?
What it the inability to retract the prepuce?
Phimosis (MC acquired)
What is entrapment of a retracted foreskin behind the coronal sulcus ?
What are 95% of penile neoplasms?
Squamous cell carcinoma
What are risks for penile neoplasms?
Over 40, uncircumcised, poor hygiene, HPV, AIDS, smoking
What is Bowen disease?
Penile neoplasm, solitary, on shaft
Invasive SCC penile neoplasm is most common where?
Glans or prepuce
What are symptoms of police neoplasms?
Abnormal texture, pain, erythema, fails to heal
What is a gray, crusted, handed, raised lesion on the penis, with irregular boarders?
What is a penectomy?
Partial or total removal or part of the penis
What is an increase of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis?
What is the most common cause of scrotal enlargement?
What is hematocele?
Blood in the scrotum
What is chylocele?
Lymph in the scrotum
What can chylocele lead to?
What transmits filariasis?
Flies, mosquitos, Arthropoda
What disease causes filariasis?
What percent of newborns have cryptorchidism?
What is a main symptom of cryptorchidism?
Testicular atrophy by age 5-6. (Leads to sterility) unilateral or bilateral
What is the increased cancer risk for testicular cancer in cryptorchidism?
What are symptoms of orchiitis?
Pain, bloody ejaculation, edema
What are symptoms of epididymitis?
Pain fever, MC unilateral
How does orchiitis or epididymitis begin?
As a UTI
What are two things that can cause orchiitis or epididymitis?
MUMPS and TB (mumps leads to necrosis and sterility (20%)
What is spermatic cord twisting?
What type of testiuclar torsion is most common?
What sign is associated with adult testicular torsion?
Is testiular torsion painful or no?
Yes (acute pain)
What much testicular torsion spontaneously resolve?
1/3 (surgery if not better in 6 hours)
What is an enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus of the scrotum?
What should you consider the problem in varicocele?
Renal cell carcinoma
What age rage do we see testicular neoplasia?
What are risks for testicular neoplasia?
Cryptorchidism (10%), fam history (brother with it 8-10 more risk), white people, gonadal dysgenesis
What testicular neoplasm is benign ?
Sex cord stromal tumors
Sex cord stromal tumors come from what cells?
Sertoli and leydig cells
What is a malignant testicular neoplasia?
Germ cell tumors (GCTs)
What makes up 95% of most post pubertal testicular tumors?
Germ cell tumors
What is the most favorable germ cell tumor?
What testicular tumor has a soft texture, grey-white and well demarcated.
What do cells in seminomas look like?
Large, uniform, round nuclei
At what age do you see embryo all carcinoma?
20-30 (indistinguishable boarders, invasive, anaplastic) no tumor marker
What Nonseminomatous GCT would we likely see at age 3?
Yolk sac tumor
What Nonseminomatous GCT is characterized by increased hCG, and is small?
What nonseminomatous GCT is a firm mass with all 3 germ cell layers and seen at allllll ages?
What type of testicular cancer is easily palpable and large, well contained mass with late mets?
What form of testicular cancer is small and less palpable, with ear leer mets to liver and lungs, may have lymphatic or hematogenous mets?
Is testiular cancer painful or painless ?
What Nonseminomatous GCT is undifferentiated and has Indistinct boarders?
What are the two key features with testicular cancer?
Painless and translucent
What form of testicular cancer is radio sensitive ?
What form of prostate cancer is found in the peripheral zone?
What from of prostate lesion is found in the transitional zone?
What is the cause of most prostatitis?
Chronic non bacterial (90-95)
Bacterial (acute and chronic) account for what percent of prostatitis?
10% (2-5% each)
What is another name for chronic non bacterial prostatitis?
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
How is chronic non bacterial prostatitis diagnose?
NIH outcome measures, DRE, sequential specimens
Where are common locations for infectious spread of prostatitis?
Blood, lymph, urethra/bladder, rectum
Where does Benign prostatic hyperplasia occur?
What Percent of males 70 or older have benign prostatic hyperplasia?
What percent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is asymptomatic ?
What are treatments for BPH?
Watchful waiting, FLOWMAX, dth inhibition TURP
What does benign prostatic hyperplasia look like?
Has nodules that are well circumscribed
What are side effects of TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate)
Incontinence, erectile dysfunction
Are most people likely do die from or die with prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer makes up what percent
Most prostate cancer is aggressive true or false?
False most is indolent
The majority of prostate cancer is what kind?
Where are most (80% of prostate cancer located ?
What is the most common age group for prostate cancer?
Where does prostate cancer MET to?
Osteoblasts can to the axial skeleton
What is a screening technique for prostate cancer?
PSA (not specific to prostate cancer) lots of false positives
What are treatments for prostate cancer?
Watch and wait, prostatectomy, radiation, anti antigen therapy
What is dilation of the renal pelvis/calyces?
What is the most common form of hydronephrosis?
Congenital (atresia in male patients)
What form of hydronephrosis my be clinically silent?
A renal calculus (stone) is most commonly made of what?
Where is pain found with kidney stones?
2-3m in size, pain in ureter, flank, groin, intermittent and severe
What is an upper urinary tract stone that is massive and looks like the cast of the renal pelvis?
Stag horn calculus
What are stag horn calculi made of? (Struvite Stone)
Magnesium ammonium phosphate
What is the most common cause of staghorn calculi?
What are symptoms of vit A deficiency ?
Kidney stones, bitot spots
What is a blind ended pouch in the bladder wall that is most commonly acquired?
Most diverticulum of the bladder look like what?
Small and asymptomatic
Cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder) is a bacterial infection that causes pain in what area?
Supra pubic pain, pee a lot, painful sex
A lower UTI may cause what?
What is the name of most bladder cancer called (90%) ?
What bladder cancer is less common and associated with Schistosoma infections? (Egypt)
Squamous cell carcinoma
What acquired gene mutation is associated with bladder cancer?
What are risks for bladder cancer?
50-80 males, industrial ares, smoking, occupational carcinogens
What are features of bladder cancer?
Painless hematuria, high recurrence