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Flashcards in Second Part Of Ex 1 Deck (231):
1

What is portal venous congestion leading to portal HTN?

Esophageal varices

2

What is the order of primary salivary gland pathologies. ?

1. Parotid 2. Sublingual 3. Submandibular. Minor salivary glands

3

______% of leukoplakia can turn to what?

25, squamous cell carcinoma

4

Where is cholera most common?

India/Africa

5

Pseudopolyps are associated with what?

Ulcerative colitis

6

What kind of hiatal hernia is separate portion of the stomach protrudes, and is prone to strangulation or obstruction ? Q

Non axial ( rolling )

7

What is tenesmus and what condition is it associated with ?

Sensation of inadequate BM, sigmoid diverticulitis

8

Esophageal varices is secondary to what?

Cirrhosis

9

What is twisting a loop of bowel ?

Volvulus

10

External hemorrhoids =?

Below the anorectal line

11

If an acquired diverticulum in the Colon becomes infected what can happen?

Perforation leading to hemorrhage

12

What is excreted via salivary glands?

>99% h20, IgA, enzymes

13

What is multiple small shallow ulceration of the stomach/duodenum ?

Acute peptic ulceration

14

What makes up the majorly of all parotid gland tumors?

Pleomorphic adenoma

15

When antibiotics disrupt intestinal flora, this allows what to happen?

Clostridium diff to overgrow

16

If herpes spreads to the brain what is it called? (Life threatening)

Herpesviral encephalitis (usually HSV-1)

17

Superficial inflammation =?

Mucosal ulcerations

18

What are symptoms of GERD?

Dysphasia, heartburn, "sour brash"

19

Where is the most common site of tumors in the small intestine?

Duodenum

20

What kind of polyp makes up the majorly of gastric polyps.?

Inflammatory and hyper plastic polyps (75%)

21

How many children die each ear from infectious enterocolitis

12,000 ( 500 infants a day)

22

What are the 3 top malabsorption problems in the US?

Pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, crohn disease

23

Do smaller or larger glands have higher cancer risk ?

Smaller (but are less common)

24

Oral cancer is about _____more common among males?

2x

25

Relapsing "attacks" with grossly bloody and mucoid stool is associated with what?

Ulcerative colitis

26

What a treatment for sigmoid diverticulitis?

Increase fiber, lifelong dietary modification

27

What percent of cholera is lethal and in what amount of time?

70% in 24 hours

28

What is a raised lesion that is firm with irregular boarders, that look whitish-grey or erythematous?

Oral squamous cell carcinoma

29

What is the most common location for angiodysplasia?

Cecum, but also in ascending colon

30

Environmental enteropathy is cycles of what?

Mucosal injury, malnutrition, and inflammation

31

Acute peptic ulceration is a complication of what 3 things?

Severe physiological stress, high NSAIDS, inter-cranial disease.

32

What constitutes diagnosis of travelers diarrhea?

Three or more unformed loose stools in 24 hours

33

What are other names for a canker sore ?

Aphthous ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis

34

What is the actual problem causing barrett esophagus ?

The lower esophageal sphincter doesn't close all the way.

35

How common is pyloric stenosis ?

1-400 births

36

What is lower pharyngeal outpouching superior to the UES?

Zenkers diverticulum

37

Are peptic ulcers more common in men or women ?

Men !0, woman 4

38

Genital herpes is called what?

HSV-2

39

What kind of gastric polyp makes up 15% of them?

Fundic gland

40

What kind of hiatal hernia is most common and is a "bell shaped" dilation ?

Axial (sliding)

41

What are risks for squamous cell carcinoma (oral) ?

Alcohol, tobacco, >30, HPV-16

42

What part of the esophagus is where squamous cell carcinomas would be found?

Middle 1/3

43

What do you see with the crypts with campylobacter?

Crypt access

44

What percent of colon cancers are lethal?

40%

45

Villus flattening is a characteristic of what?

Environmental enteropathy

46

What is complete rupture at the thoracic esophagus? Hammans sign?

Boerhaaves syndrome

47

What is esophageal metaplasia at the distal esophagus? Where strat squamous Turing into columnar?

Barrett esophagus

48

What causes oral candidiasis? (Thrush)

Candida albicans

49

What is an early sign of appendicitis?

Periumbilical/epigastic discomfort

50

What is a vascular lesion with tortuous and dilated submucosal and mucosal vessels?

Angiodysplasia

51

Are most hiatal hernias symptomatic ?

No!

52

What disease is when chronic gastritis leads to atrophy with antibodies against parietal cells?

Autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anemia

53

What are complications of barrett esophagus ?

Esophageal adenocarcinoma, ulceration

54

If someone has lost a lot of weight, has abdominal dissension, borborygmus, flatulence, anorexia?

Malabsorption

55

What kind of ulcer gets worse after eating?

Gastric

56

What is when a segment of intestine telescopes into a distal segment?

Intussusception

57

Who is at risk for barrett esophagus ?

White ppl (30-300) males (4x) 40-60

58

Campylobacter enterocolitis may initiate what?

Reactive arthritis (HLA-B27)

59

How do you diagnose adenomas?

Screen, sessile or pedunculated, polyectomy

60

In what condition do 100% of patients develop colon cancer, most commonly before 30?

Familial adenomatous polyposis

61

Giardiasis (never fever) = ?

Malabsorption

62

What kind of mineral deficiency is associated with celiac disease?

Iron

63

How do you diagnose zenkers diverticulum?

Barium swallow and video fluoroscopy

64

Eating a highly processed diet increased your risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma ?

30x

65

What kind of esophagitis is most common after an ulcer and debilitated?

Infectious

66

What sign is achalasia associated with?

Bird beak sign

67

Flagellated protozoa is associated with what?

Giardia lamblia

68

What is the genetic mutation for someone with familial adenomatous polyposis ?

APC gene on chromosome 5

69

What is the treatment for crohns disease?

Probiotics, and immunosuppressive meds

70

Chronic and relapsing abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea are symptoms of what?

IBS

71

Colorectal adenocarcinomas most commonly metastasize to where?

Liver

72

How common is crohns disease?

1:500

73

What is the cause of the ischemia in ischemic bowel disease?

From hypotension or occlusion, mucosal infarction

74

What kind of Esophageal lesion is associated with ectopic gastric mucosa, upper 1/3. Asymptomatic.

Ectopia

75

Parasitic diseases affect how many people?

>1/2 the worlds pop

76

What causes viral gastroenteritis in children ?

Rotavirus

77

What is the most common cause of esophagitis ?

Reflux esophagitis

78

What is the most common outpatient G.I. Complaint?

GERD

79

What % of parotid gland tumors are malignant ?

15-30%

80

What kind of Esophageal lesion is associated with atresia, tracheal fistula, Stenosis, regurgitation?

Mechanical

81

What is celiac disease?

Immune mediated, reaction to gliadin

82

IBD is most commonly seen in what type of control?

Females, adolescence, white.

83

Tumors of the small intestine account for what percent of all G.I. Malignancies ?

1%

84

Are adenomas age related?

Yes

85

What kind of parotid gland tumor is more invasive, less mobile and malignant?

Carcinoma Ex Pleomophic adenoma

86

What is the most common malignancy of the G.I. Tract?

Colorectal adenocarcinoma

87

What are symptoms of acute ischemic bowel disease?

Sudden/severe abdominal pain, nausea. Vomiting, frank blood in stool

88

Where do most intestinal obstructions occur?

Small intestine

89

What is the cause of lynch syndrome?

Inherited mutations in DNA mismatch repair system

90

What deficiency is associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma ?

Iron deficiency anemia

91

What is the long term survival rate for someone with squamous cell carcinoma?

<50% long term

92

What are risks for chronic gastritis ?

Heliobacter pylori infection, old age

93

Skip lesions are seen in what condition?

Crohns disease

94

What are symptoms of dermatitis herpetiformis ?

Blister on arms, legs, butt, itchy, seen in 10% of celiac disease patients

95

What do Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have in common?

IBD, Familial, females, risk of adenocarcinomas

96

What is a benign smooth muscle tumor of the esophagus ?

Leiomyoma

97

What parts are injured in viral gastroenteritis?

To superficial cells of the stomach or SI

98

What are the most common types of tumors of the small intestine?

50% adenocarcinoma, 50% carcinoid tumors

99

What does ulcerative colitis?

Rectum/distal colon

100

Canker sores are most common in what kind of people?

Females, over 20, Celiac disase, IBD, Behcet disease

101

Crohn disease effects what ?

Entire GI tract, Most commonly in the ileum

102

What mutation is common for oral cancer?

TP53

103

Oralfacial herpes is called what?

HSV-1

104

What are treatments for ischemic bowel disease?

Prophylactic antibiotics

105

What condition is associated with a wall defect that leads to a blind need pouch and there are most commonly multiple ?

Sigmoid diverticulitis

106

What type of gastritis is transient mucosal inflammation (neutrophils), with possible erosion/ulceration ?

Acute

107

If the appendix Rutgers there is what?

High morbidity and mortality.

108

When does zenkers diverticulum develop and what are sympotoms?

After an increase in pharyngeal pressure. Halitosis, dysphasia, regurgitation

109

What has a high (50%) risk of transitioning to CA has irregular boarder and is a red velvety area?

Erythroplakia

110

What causes 10-20% initial HSV infections ?

Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis

111

What kind of Esophageal lesion is secondary to portal hypertension ?

Esophageal varices

112

Are there granulomas or skip lesions seen in Ulcerative colitis?

No

113

Is there inflammation associated with IBS?

NO

114

What are some treatments for canker sores?

NSAIDS, B12 (cobalamin)

115

What is the defect that causes hirschsprung disease?

Neural crest cell migration

116

What is treatment for IBS?

Fiber, decrease carbs

117

What does herpes virus lay dormant?

Trigeminal ganglion

118

What condition is a hemangioma on gingiva, caused by hormonal factors and or irritation that grows rapidly ?

Pyogenic granuloma

119

What % of he us have appendicitis?

7%

120

What is the most common acute abdominal condition ?

Quite appendicitis

121

What is the location of hemorrhoids ?

Anal and perianal vessels

122

Where are common locations for peptic ulcer?

Prox duodenum (4x), gastric Antrim

123

Co-morbidity impairs esophageal functioning. Inflammation near Auerbach plexus is what?

Secondary achalasia

124

What do you see with e coli crypt architecture

Normal

125

What is the Most common esophageal cancer worldwide?

Squamous cell carcinoma

126

Are colorectal adenocarcinomas asymptomatic early?

Yes

127

What makes up 90% of all stomach cancers?

Gastric adenocarcinoma

128

What is a raised white patch that cant be scraped off?

Leukoplakia

129

With malabsorption what is defective?

Fats,carbs, proteins, vit A D E K, mineral, electrolytes

130

What percent of herpes simplex virus is asymptomatic?

80%

131

What percent of people over 70 have xerostomia?

20%

132

What is the most common type of oral cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma

133

What are shared feathers between duodenal and gastric ulcers?

Eating influences pain, relieved by vomiting or alkaline substance, worse at night

134

What's is another name for sigmoid diverticulitis ?

Colonic diverticulosis

135

What are 2 treatments for achalasia

Botulinum toxin, pneumatic dilation

136

What percent of sublingual or minor salivary gland tumors are malignant?

50-90%

137

How common is Ulcerative colitis?

1 per 5,000

138

What causes viral gastroenteritis in adults?

Norovirus

139

What is the most common cause of bacterial sialadenitis?

Staph aureus

140

What kind of esophageal laceration is a longitudinal tear from forceful vomiting?

Mallory weiss tear

141

90% of all cirrhosis cases have what?

Esophageal varices

142

What type of esophagitis is acute, self limiting, and due to tobacco, alcohol, pill induce?

Chemical

143

If you have perianal citing with bright red bloody (frank) stool, most are self limiting which is what?

Hemorrhoids

144

What are risks for gastric adenocarcinoma ??

H pylori, japan(20x)

145

What are symptoms of chronic ischemic bowel disease??

Episodic bloody diarrhea, mimics IBD

146

What is a blocked or rupture of a duct, found on the lower lip in the young and old?

Mucocele (mucous cyst, Ranula)

147

Who is most commonly effected by tropical sprue?

Children 2-3 years old

148

What condition is an hereditary cancer syndrome?

Lynch syndrome

149

What is the most common tumor of the appendix?

Carcinoid, (rarely adenocarcinoma )

150

Hamartomas = what?

Mature cells

151

Are adenomas considered malignant until proven otherwise?

Yes

152

Is fibrosis seen in crohns or ulcerative colitis ?

Crohns

153

What are dietary risk factors for an adenocarcinoma ?

Low veggie fiber, high amounts of carbs, high animal fat, decreased antioxidants.

154

What kind of achalasia is most common?

Primary

155

In HPV (16) associated squamous cell carcinoma where are the most common sites?

Base of tongue, tonsillar crypts

156

Who is at risk for celiac disease ?

White people, 30-60

157

What condition is associated with barrett esophagus ?

GERD

158

What is associated with projectile vomiting and the fluid is not bile stained. ?

Pyloric stenosis

159

What makes up 20% of lower intestinal bleeds?

Angiodysplasia

160

What is a nodular mass, following chronic irritation also has
Hyperplasia and fibrosis and is most common along the bite line?

Fibroma

161

What is a solitary punched out lesion in the stomach ?

Peptic ulcer disease

162

Where does U.C. Always being ?

Rectum

163

What are the most common (3) locations of Crohn's disease ?

Terminal ileum, ileocecal valve

164

Who is at risk forr a squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus ?

45^, males, African americans

165

If caught early what's the 5 ear survival rate for gastric adenocarcinoma ?

90%

166

What causes cholera ?

Vinbro cholera (gram -)

167

Is crohns disease or ulcerative colitis malabsorptive ?

Crohns

168

What kind of pain is assocaited with peptic ulcers and when?

Gnawing, burning, boring, at night 1-3 hours after eating

169

When celiac disase manifests on the skin what is it called?

Dermatitis herpetiformis

170

What is inflammation of the gastric mucosa ?

Gastritis

171

What kind of gastritis is less severe but prolonged?

Chronic

172

What relieves peptic ulcers?

Alkaline substance

173

What arteries are associated with ischemic bowl disease? (Ischemic colitis)

Superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, and celiac artery

174

What are characteristics of hemorrhoid?

Thin walled varices, swollen and tortuous

175

What is responsible for 50% of esophageal cancers in the us?

Adenocarcinoma

176

What causes celiac disease?

B and T cells damage S.I. Causing villous atrophy

177

What is the most common form of viral Sialadenitis?

Mumps virus infection (pediatrics = self limiting. Adults, pancreatitis and orchitis)

178

How does one diagnose lactose intolerance?

Breath hydrogen test

179

What is a major risk for adenomas and how much higher is the risk?

Family history, 4x increased risk
Q

180

What is secondary to injury to esophageal mucosa?

Esophagitis

181

What syndrome is associated with salivary gland problems?

Sjogren syndrome

182

Canker sores effect what percent of the population ???

40

183

Where is the problem with lactose intolerance ?

S.I. Brush border

184

What condition is associated with grey/white pseudomembranes that can be scraped off?

Oral candidiasis

185

What are symptoms of sigmoid diverticulitis ?

Cramping, LLQ pain

186

What is lost in celiac Disease?

Villi

187

What is characterized by dry mouth, due to decreased saliva production?

Xerostomia

188

What is known as a pregnancy tumor?

Pyogenic granuloma

189

The ______the size of a adenoma the_______chance of cancer.

Larger, higher

190

What is it called when inflammation leads to fibrosis that creates adherent intestinal segments?

Adhesions

191

What are signs of an acute appendicitis ?

Anorexia, nausea, vomiting

192

The cholera toxin opens what?

CFTR which = a massive chloride ion secretion

193

What is a major risk of esophageal varices?

Hemorrhage. 50% of first time bleeds are lethal

194

What is the triad for achalasia?

Incomplete LES relaxation, increased LES tone, esophageal aperistalsis

195

Internal hemorrhoids =?

Above the anorectal line

196

What is another name for environmental enteropathy ?

Tropical sprue

197

What are late symptoms of appendicitis ?

RLQ tenderness to deep/constant pain

198

What is the most common bacterial enteric pathogen in the US?

Campylobacter jejuni

199

How many people in the us over have have adenomas?

Half

200

What is a main symptom of acute peptic ulceration ?

Coffee ground mematemesis

201

Transmural inflammation with fissures and Melena is associated with what?

Crohn disease

202

What things are aspirated with toxic Megacolon?

Polyarthritis, sacoiliitis, AS, eye irritation

203

Where is the most common site of mets for oral squamous cell carcinoma?

Cervical lymph nodes

204

What is the most common cancer associated with Lynch syndrome?

Endometrial

205

Is chronic gastric mucosa symptomatic ?

No

206

What kind of pain is associated with Crohn's disease?

RLQ pain

207

How does malabsorption manifest itself?

Chronic diarrhea

208

What causes travelers diarrhea ?

Fecal oral contamination

209

What are 3 organisms that cause acute self limited colitis ?

Campylobacter, shigella, E. coli, salmonella

210

What are risks for pseudomembranous colitis?

Hospitalization

211

What is congenital outpouching of the small intestine called ?

Meckel diverticulum

212

What kind of ulcer gets better after eating?

Duodenal

213

What is another name for hirschsprung disease?

Congenital aganglionic megacolon

214

What is the most common vascular disorder of G.I. Tract ?

Hemorrhoids

215

What is the loss of inhibitory innervation to the LES?

Primary achalasia

216

What are carries are salmonella?

Snakes, lizards, gecko, salamanders q

217

Thrush is seen in what percent of newborns?

40

218

What disease is associated with lack of neurologic ganglia in the rectum that may involve the sigmoid colon?

Hirschsprung disease

219

What is the most common cause of appendicitis ?

Obstruction (50-80%)

220

What type of esophageal lesion is associated with achalasia, aperistalsis?

Functional

221

What percent of submandibular gland tumors are malignant ?

40%

222

What is the main cause of travelers diarrhea?

Enterotoxigenic E. Coli

223

What organisms is associated with parasitic disease?

Ascaris lumnricoides

224

How does one diagnose familial adenomatous polyposis ?

100 or more adenomas most commonly 500-2,500

225

What are treatments for pseudomembranous colitis ?

Vancomycin or metronidazole

226

What is a shallow painful ulceration in the oral mucosa and or pharynx usually less than 5mm?

Canker sore

227

What is inhibitory for U.C.?

Smoking

228

Does location of herpes indicate type ?

No

229

At what age are most people diagnosed with colorectal adenocarcinoma ?

50-70

230

What are risk factors for pyloric stenosis ?

White, male, turner syndrome

231

What is it called when the stomach protrudes into the thorax, via a wider esophageal hiatus?

Hiatal hernia