Not sure how first Americans arrived.
Many theories. Most popular is the _____________
Beringia Ice bridge
The geography of most of southwestern US and northern Mexico is ________
________ flourished from 100 BC to AD 1500
What did Hohokam learned to do in the desert?
Built shallow canals for ___________
Directed water to ______ _______
•Learned to farm in the desert
–Built shallow canals for irrigation
–Directed water to crop mounds
Hohokam expanded ____________.
Channeled ________ into __________
Channeled water into villages
Hohokam build structures called _________.
Describe these structures.
Created pithouses, dwellings formed by digging shallow holes in the ground and building walls and roofs with mixture of clay and straw
The _________lived in the Desert West near the Hohokam from about 100 BC to AD 1300
Anasazi build pithouses called __________
What were the Pueblos like?
•Also developed the pueblo
–Several stories high
–Similar to apartments
Villages also had underground rooms called ______.
What were these used as?
Used as meeting places, for religious ceremonies
Another type of Anasazi architecture were ___________
How were these build?
What purpose were these?
Pueblos built in shallow caves in walls of rocky canyon
Limited accessibility offered protection from attack
This group called ________ lived in eastern woodlands, near Ohio and Mississippi river valleys
Hopewell were known as ___________ living during this time _______
Mound builders, 200 BC to AD 500
What did the Mound Builders build?
What do their size suggests?
•Built large stone and earth mounds as burial sites
•Size suggests some form of organized labor
Hopewell build _________ and buried objects like ________.
What evidence shows this?
Hopewell buried objects like pottery and metal ornaments.
Shells from Gulf of Mexico have been found
What did Hopewell develop?
When did the culture begin to decline?
•Hopewell developed extensive trade network
•Culture began to decline AD 400, cause not clear
This group __________ also lived in eastern woodlands, near Ohio and Mississippi river valleys
The Mississippian built _________
•Built some of the earliest cities in North America
__________had population up to 20,000 people
Cahokia had population up to 20,000 people
How did the Mississippians live?
•Contained more than 100 mounds, with ruler living atop largest in city center
Cahokia show evidence of ______ and ________skills
•Mathematical and engineering skills evident
What do the mounds build by the Cahokia show?
•Different types of soils in mounds for proper drainage
•Artifacts show complex society, differences between common people and those with status
Another culture of North America was _________ that lived in the Arctic regions.
How did they live?
•Lived in the Arctic regions of North America
•Frozen, meant no vegetation for food source
•Hunters and fishers
What did the INUIT do year-round to live?
•Used kayaks to hunt sea mammals, caught fish through holes in ice
•Hunted caribou in summer, used skins and furs for warm clothing
•Houses were igloos, made from ice blocks
The _________ lived in eastern North America
•Lived in eastern North America
•Relied on materials from the forest
How did the Iroquois live?
Hunting and farming
•Trapped forest animals for food
•Farmed crops such as beans, squash, maize
The Iroquois included tribes such as _______ and formed government called __________
Five different nations
•Iroquois included Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca
•formed government, Iroquois League
Another culture were the Plains Indians.
How did they live?
•Like Iroquois, Plains Indians consisted of different tribes
•Not all spoke same language
•Developed a form of sign language to communicate when they met
The Plains Indians lived along _____________. They moved around by following _________.
What was at the center of the Plains Indians lives?
•Plains Indians originally lived along rivers and streams
•Followed buffalo herds over long distances
•Buffalo center of lives, with buffalo meat as food, skins for clothing and tents, and bones and horns for tools