An early culture in South America was _____________.
Lived in ____________highlands, 800 to 400 BC
•Lived in Peruvian highlands, 800 to 400 BC
•Chavin de Huantar
–Religious in daily life, trading center of culture
–Home to about 3,000 farmers, craftspeople
What was Chavin crops like in different climate?
•Warmer climate: Had irrigation systems, grew corn
•Cooler higher in mountains: Grew potatoes
Another culture was the _________.
Lived in desert of ________ around 400 BC to AD 600
•Lived in desert of Peru 400 BC to AD 600
What did the Moche build?
•Built irrigation canals in desert, channeled flow of Andean streams to crops
What artwork were the Moche known for?
•Best known for skilled metalwork in gold, silver, pottery
•Pottery depicted scenes of everyday life, including warfare
The _________ was an early culture in South America.
These are desert people living 200 BC to AD 600 best known for ___________
•Desert people, 200 BC to AD 600, best known for huge designs on desert floor
What did the Nazca build?
•Built irrigation canals and relied on springs & flooding to water crops
•Farming supported large population
The greatest empire in South America was the __________ empire
The Inca Empire
How did the Inca empire begin?
How far did it stretch?
•Brought entire South American region into one empire
•Began as small tribe
•Early 1500s, empire expanded along Pacific coast
What was the Inca government like?
•Period of rapid expansion
•Pachacuti used political alliances, military force
How did Inca rule its empire?
Ruling a large empire
•Incas needed strong government
•Emperor had most power
•Did not want conquered people to rebel
How did Inca empire create stability across the empire?
•Moved leaders of conquered areas out
•Moved loyal new leaders in
•Military used to protect against rebellion, external attacks
What was the Inca empire's ECONOMY like?
•Strictly controlled by government
•Common people required to pay labor tax, called the mita
•Government told each household what work to do to pay tax
What was the MITA?
•Paid by weaving cloth, working on government farms, mines, building roads
•No merchants, goods distributed by government
•Extra food, goods stored in government warehouses for emergencies
How did the Incas record numbers?
•Inca used quipu, colored and knotted cords representing numbers, dates
How did the Inca track goods?
•No written language, quipu used to record taxes, number livestock, census
•Road system improved communication, helped government control economy
How did the government play a big role in Inca society?
The government also played a big role in Inca society.
Each family was grouped with others into a cooperative community
Community groupings were called _________
How was the AYLLU organized?
How were activities organized?
Who was the head?
•Members shared activities like farming, building canals, rituals
•Each group of ten ayllus had chief
•Chain of command from emperor down to local level
How were classes of people divided?
•Most belonged to lower class
•Wore plain clothes
•Could not own more than needed
• Served upper class
Who were the upper class people?
Where did they live?
UPPER CLASS - King, government officials, priests
•Lived in capital, Cuzco
–Did not pay tax
–Attended school to prepare to be officials
________ was a key element of Inca society
Religion a key element of Inca society
What was the most important in Inca religion?
–Sun god was most important of all
–Believed kings related to sun god
Main temple was located in _________
•Main temple located in Cuzco
What were in the religious ceremonies?
–Mummies of dead kings worshipped
–Religious ceremonies often included sacrifices of llamas, cloth or food, rarely humans
How were the Inca empire organized?
Well organized: Engineering, arts, builders of forts and roads. Many Inca structures were built so well they still stand today.
What was Inca metalwork like?
•Skilled in metalwork
•Artisans made ornaments of gold, silver
•Created a life-sized field of corn out of gold & silver in temple courtyard
How did the Incans do weaving?
•Weavers worked with wool, cotton
•Divided cloth into three categories
oPlain for households
oFiner for taxes and trade
oSpecial for royal and religious purposes
How long did the Inca empire last?
What ended the empire?
The Inca Empire lasted only about 100 years.
Arrival of Spanish in 1532 marked end of Empire.