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Flashcards in Chap-8 terms Deck (57):
1

Data analytics?

process of using data and analytical systems to arrive at optimal decisions, including statistical analyses of data

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Measurement?

process of assigning numbers according to some rule of convention to aspects of people, jobs, job success, or aspects of the staffing system

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Data?

numerical outcomes of measurement

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Predictive data?

information about measures used to make projections about outcomes

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Criterion data?

information about important outcomes of the staffing process

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Nominal measurement?

measurement in which numbers are assigned to discrete labels or categories

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Ordinal measurement?

measurement in which attributes are ranked by assigning numbers in ascending or descending order

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Interval measurement?

measurement in which the distance between scores on an attribute has meaning

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Ratio measurement?

measurement i which the distance between the scores has meaning; it includes a true and meaningful zero point

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Raw scores?

unadjusted scores on a measure

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Criterion-referenced measures?

measures in which the scores have meaning in and of themselves

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Norm-referenced measures?

measures in which the scores have meaning only when compared to the scores of others

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Normal curve?

curve representing the bell-shaped symmetrical distribution of some factor

14

Normal distribution?

distribution of scores under the normal curve

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Percentile score?

raw score that has been converted into an expression of the percentage of people who score at or below that score

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Central tendency?

midpoint, or center of the data

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Mean?

measure of central tendency reflecting the average score

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Median?

middle score, or the point below which 50% of the scores fall

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Mode?

most commonly observed score

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Variability?

measure that describes the "spread" of the data around the midpoint

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Range?

difference between the highest and lowest observed score

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Outlier?

score that is much higher or lower than most of the scores in a distribution

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Variance?

mathematical measure of the spread based on squared deviations of scores from the mean

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Standard deviation?

positive square root of the variance; it is conceptually similar to the average distance from the mean of a set of scores

25

Standard scores?

converted raw scores that indicate where a person's score lies in comparison to a referent group

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Correlation?

strength of a linear relationship between two variables

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Correlation coefficient?

single number that ranges from -1 to +1; it reflects the direction (positive or negative) and magnitude (the strength) of the relationship between two variables

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Scatter plot?

graphical illustration of the relationship between two variables

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Predictor variable?

variable used to predict the value of an outcome

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Sampling error?

variability of sample correlations due to chance

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Statistical significance?

degree to which the observed relationship is not likely due to sampling error

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Practical significance?

observed relationship that is large enough to be of value in a practical sense

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Multiple regression?

statistical technique that predicts an outcome using one or more predictor variables; it identifies the ideal weights to assign each predictor so as to maximize the validity of a set of predictors; the analysis is based on each predictor's correlation with the outcome and the degree to which the predictors are themselves intercorrelated

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Reliability?

how dependably, or consistently, a measure assesses a particular characteristic

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Random error?

error that is not due to any consistent cause

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Systematic errors?

error that occurs because of consistent and predictable factors

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Deficiency error?

occurs when you fail to measure important aspects of the attribute you would like to measure

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Contamination error?

occurs when other factors unrelated to whatever is being assessed affect the observed scores

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Test-retest reliability?

reflects the repeatability of scores over time and the stability of the underlying construct being measured

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Alternate or parallel form reliability?

indicates how consistent scores are likely to be if a person completes two or more forms of the same measure

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Internal consistency reliability?

indicates the extent to which items on a given measure assess the same construct

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Inter-rater reliability?

indicates how consistent scores are likely to be if the responses are scored by two or more raters using the same item, scale, or instrument

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Standard error of measurement (SEM)?

margin of error that you should expect in an individual score because of the imperfect reliability of the measure

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Validity?

how well a measure assesses a given construct and the degree to which you can make specific conclusions or predictions based on observed scores

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Face validity?

subjective assessment of how well items seem to be related to the requirements of the job

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Validation?

cumulative and ongoing process of establishing the job relatedness of a measure

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Content-related validation?

process of demonstrating that the content of a measure assesses important job-related behaviors

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Construct-related validation?

process of demonstration the a measure assesses the construct, or characteristic, it claims to measure

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Criterion-related validation?

process of demonstrating that there is a statistical relationship between scores from a measure (the predictor) and the criterion (the outcome)

50

Validity Coefficient?

number between zero and +1 that indicates the magnitude of the relationship between a predictor (such as test scores) and the criterion (such as a measure of actual job success)

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Validity generalization?

degree to which evidence of validity obtained in one situation can be generalized to another situation without further study

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Selection errors?

not hiring someone who would've been successful at the job or hiring someone who isn't successful at the job

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Whole-person approach?

practice of using a variety of measures and procedures to more fully assess people

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Standardization?

consistent administration and use of a measure

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Objectivity?

amount of judgment or bias involved in scoring an assessment measure

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Selection ratio?

number of people hired divided by the amount of applicants

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Base rate?

percent of employees who are defined as currently successful performers