Flashcards in Chap-8 terms Deck (57):

1

## Data analytics?

### process of using data and analytical systems to arrive at optimal decisions, including statistical analyses of data

2

## Measurement?

### process of assigning numbers according to some rule of convention to aspects of people, jobs, job success, or aspects of the staffing system

3

## Data?

### numerical outcomes of measurement

4

## Predictive data?

### information about measures used to make projections about outcomes

5

## Criterion data?

### information about important outcomes of the staffing process

6

## Nominal measurement?

### measurement in which numbers are assigned to discrete labels or categories

7

## Ordinal measurement?

### measurement in which attributes are ranked by assigning numbers in ascending or descending order

8

## Interval measurement?

### measurement in which the distance between scores on an attribute has meaning

9

## Ratio measurement?

### measurement i which the distance between the scores has meaning; it includes a true and meaningful zero point

10

## Raw scores?

### unadjusted scores on a measure

11

## Criterion-referenced measures?

### measures in which the scores have meaning in and of themselves

12

## Norm-referenced measures?

### measures in which the scores have meaning only when compared to the scores of others

13

## Normal curve?

### curve representing the bell-shaped symmetrical distribution of some factor

14

## Normal distribution?

### distribution of scores under the normal curve

15

## Percentile score?

### raw score that has been converted into an expression of the percentage of people who score at or below that score

16

## Central tendency?

### midpoint, or center of the data

17

## Mean?

### measure of central tendency reflecting the average score

18

## Median?

### middle score, or the point below which 50% of the scores fall

19

## Mode?

### most commonly observed score

20

## Variability?

### measure that describes the "spread" of the data around the midpoint

21

## Range?

### difference between the highest and lowest observed score

22

## Outlier?

### score that is much higher or lower than most of the scores in a distribution

23

## Variance?

### mathematical measure of the spread based on squared deviations of scores from the mean

24

## Standard deviation?

### positive square root of the variance; it is conceptually similar to the average distance from the mean of a set of scores

25

## Standard scores?

### converted raw scores that indicate where a person's score lies in comparison to a referent group

26

## Correlation?

### strength of a linear relationship between two variables

27

## Correlation coefficient?

### single number that ranges from -1 to +1; it reflects the direction (positive or negative) and magnitude (the strength) of the relationship between two variables

28

## Scatter plot?

### graphical illustration of the relationship between two variables

29

## Predictor variable?

### variable used to predict the value of an outcome

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## Sampling error?

### variability of sample correlations due to chance

31

## Statistical significance?

### degree to which the observed relationship is not likely due to sampling error

32

## Practical significance?

### observed relationship that is large enough to be of value in a practical sense

33

## Multiple regression?

### statistical technique that predicts an outcome using one or more predictor variables; it identifies the ideal weights to assign each predictor so as to maximize the validity of a set of predictors; the analysis is based on each predictor's correlation with the outcome and the degree to which the predictors are themselves intercorrelated

34

## Reliability?

### how dependably, or consistently, a measure assesses a particular characteristic

35

## Random error?

### error that is not due to any consistent cause

36

## Systematic errors?

### error that occurs because of consistent and predictable factors

37

## Deficiency error?

### occurs when you fail to measure important aspects of the attribute you would like to measure

38

## Contamination error?

### occurs when other factors unrelated to whatever is being assessed affect the observed scores

39

## Test-retest reliability?

### reflects the repeatability of scores over time and the stability of the underlying construct being measured

40

## Alternate or parallel form reliability?

### indicates how consistent scores are likely to be if a person completes two or more forms of the same measure

41

## Internal consistency reliability?

### indicates the extent to which items on a given measure assess the same construct

42

## Inter-rater reliability?

### indicates how consistent scores are likely to be if the responses are scored by two or more raters using the same item, scale, or instrument

43

## Standard error of measurement (SEM)?

### margin of error that you should expect in an individual score because of the imperfect reliability of the measure

44

## Validity?

### how well a measure assesses a given construct and the degree to which you can make specific conclusions or predictions based on observed scores

45

## Face validity?

### subjective assessment of how well items seem to be related to the requirements of the job

46

## Validation?

### cumulative and ongoing process of establishing the job relatedness of a measure

47

## Content-related validation?

### process of demonstrating that the content of a measure assesses important job-related behaviors

48

## Construct-related validation?

### process of demonstration the a measure assesses the construct, or characteristic, it claims to measure

49

## Criterion-related validation?

### process of demonstrating that there is a statistical relationship between scores from a measure (the predictor) and the criterion (the outcome)

50

## Validity Coefficient?

### number between zero and +1 that indicates the magnitude of the relationship between a predictor (such as test scores) and the criterion (such as a measure of actual job success)

51

## Validity generalization?

### degree to which evidence of validity obtained in one situation can be generalized to another situation without further study

52

## Selection errors?

### not hiring someone who would've been successful at the job or hiring someone who isn't successful at the job

53

## Whole-person approach?

### practice of using a variety of measures and procedures to more fully assess people

54

## Standardization?

### consistent administration and use of a measure

55

## Objectivity?

### amount of judgment or bias involved in scoring an assessment measure

56

## Selection ratio?

### number of people hired divided by the amount of applicants

57