Flashcards in Chapter 03 Vocab Deck (34):
A negatively charged ion.
The smallest piece of an element that has the properties of the element; it consists of a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud.
The number of protons in the nucleus of a given element.
The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of a given element. (Also known as atomic mass.)
Rocks containing calcite and/or dolomite.
A positively charged ion.
A material consisting of a distinct element or compound
The invisible link that holds together atoms in a molecule and/or in a crystal.
The ''recipe'' that specifies the elements and their proportions in a compound.
Interactions among atoms and/or molecules involving breaking or forming chemical bonds.
(1) The tendency of a mineral to break along preferred planes; (2) a type of foliation in low-grade metamorphic rock.
The characteristic of a material due to the spectrum of light emitted or reflected by the material, as perceived by eyes or instruments.
A material composed of two or more elements that cannot be separated mechanically; the smallest piece is a molecule.
Smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surfaces along which materials with no cleavage planes tend to break.
The attachment of one atom to another that develops when the atoms share electrons; one type of chemical bond.
A single, continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfaces that formed naturally as the mineral grew.
The general shape of a crystal or cluster of crystals that grew unimpeded.
A material consisting entirely of one kind of atom; elements cannot be subdivided or changed by chemical reactions.
A cavity in which euhedral crystals precipitate out of water solutions passing through a rock.
A solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern.
A version of an atom that has lost or gained electrons, relative to an electrically neutral version, so that it has a net electrical charge.
The attachment of one atom to another that happens when one atom transfers electrons to another; one type of chemical bond.
The way a mineral surface scatters light.
A chemical bond in which the outer atoms are attached to each other in such a way that electrons flow easily from atom to atom.
A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic.
A science specializing in the study of minerals.
A material consisting of two or more substances that can be separated mechanically (i.e., without chemical reactions).
Mohs Hardness Scale
A list of ten minerals in a sequence of relative hardness, with which other minerals can be compared.
The smallest piece of a compound that has the properties of the compound; it consists of two or more atoms attached by chemical bonds.
Two minerals that have the same chemical composition but a different crystal lattice structure.
(chem, n) A solid substance formed when atoms attach and settle out of a solution, or attach to the walls of the container holding the solution; (chem, v) the action of forming a solid substance from a solution; (meteorology, v) the dropping of snow or rain from the sky.
A material containing dissolved ions.
A number representing the density of a mineral, as specified by the ratio between the weight of a volume of the mineral and the weight of an equal volume of water.