Chapter 03 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 03 Vocab Deck (34):
1

Anion

A negatively charged ion.

2

Atom

The smallest piece of an element that has the properties of the element; it consists of a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud.

3

Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus of a given element.

4

Atomic Weight

The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of a given element. (Also known as atomic mass.)

5

Carbonate

Rocks containing calcite and/or dolomite.

6

Cation

A positively charged ion.

7

Chemical

A material consisting of a distinct element or compound

8

Chemical Bond

The invisible link that holds together atoms in a molecule and/or in a crystal.

9

Chemical Formula

The ''recipe'' that specifies the elements and their proportions in a compound.

10

Chemical Reaction

Interactions among atoms and/or molecules involving breaking or forming chemical bonds.

11

Cleavage

(1) The tendency of a mineral to break along preferred planes; (2) a type of foliation in low-grade metamorphic rock.

12

Color

The characteristic of a material due to the spectrum of light emitted or reflected by the material, as perceived by eyes or instruments.

13

Compound

A material composed of two or more elements that cannot be separated mechanically; the smallest piece is a molecule.

14

Conchoidal Fracture

Smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surfaces along which materials with no cleavage planes tend to break.

15

Covalent Bond

The attachment of one atom to another that develops when the atoms share electrons; one type of chemical bond.

16

Crystal

A single, continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfaces that formed naturally as the mineral grew.

17

Crystal Habit

The general shape of a crystal or cluster of crystals that grew unimpeded.

18

Element

A material consisting entirely of one kind of atom; elements cannot be subdivided or changed by chemical reactions.

19

Geode

A cavity in which euhedral crystals precipitate out of water solutions passing through a rock.

20

Glass

A solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern.

21

Ion

A version of an atom that has lost or gained electrons, relative to an electrically neutral version, so that it has a net electrical charge.

22

Ionic Bond

The attachment of one atom to another that happens when one atom transfers electrons to another; one type of chemical bond.

23

Luster

The way a mineral surface scatters light.

24

Metallic Bond

A chemical bond in which the outer atoms are attached to each other in such a way that electrons flow easily from atom to atom.

25

Mineral

A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic.

26

Mineralogy

A science specializing in the study of minerals.

27

Mixture

A material consisting of two or more substances that can be separated mechanically (i.e., without chemical reactions).

28

Mohs Hardness Scale

A list of ten minerals in a sequence of relative hardness, with which other minerals can be compared.

29

Molecule

The smallest piece of a compound that has the properties of the compound; it consists of two or more atoms attached by chemical bonds.

30

Polymorphs

Two minerals that have the same chemical composition but a different crystal lattice structure.

31

Precipitate

(chem, n) A solid substance formed when atoms attach and settle out of a solution, or attach to the walls of the container holding the solution; (chem, v) the action of forming a solid substance from a solution; (meteorology, v) the dropping of snow or rain from the sky.

32

Solution

A material containing dissolved ions.

33

Specific Gravity

A number representing the density of a mineral, as specified by the ratio between the weight of a volume of the mineral and the weight of an equal volume of water.

34

Streak

The color of the powder produced by pulverizing a mineral on an unglazed ceramic plate.