Flashcards in Chapter 08 Vocab Deck (32):
The series of smaller earthquakes that follow a major earthquake.
Seismic waves that pass through the interior of the Earth.
Waves in which particles of material move back and forth parallel to the direction in which the wave itself moves.
The amount of movement or slip across a fault plane.
A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth.
Earthquake Early Warning
A communications network that provides an alert within microseconds after the first earthquakes waves arrive at a seismograph near the epicenter, but before damaging vibrations reach population centers.
The design of buildings that can withstand shaking.
The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus of an earthquake.
A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another.
A small step on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other.
The intersection between a fault and the ground surface.
The series of smaller earthquakes that precede a major earthquake.
Resistance to sliding on a surface.
A measure of the relative size of an earthquake (the severity of ground shaking) at a location, as determined by examining the amount of damage caused.
Earthquakes that occur away from plate boundaries.
Modified Mercalli Scale
An earthquake characterization scale based on the amount of damage that the earthquake causes.
Moment Magnitude Scale
A scale that defines earthquake size on the basis of calculations involving the amount of slip, length of rupture, depth of rupture, and rock strength.
The average time between successive geologic events.
A scale that defines earthquakes on the basis of the amplitude of the largest ground motion recorded on a seismogram.
The relatively narrow strips of crust on Earth under which most earthquakes occur.
The strengthening of an already existing structure (building, bridge, etc.) so that it can withstand earthquake vibrations.
Waves of energy emitted at the focus of an earthquake.
The record of an earthquake produced by a seismograph.
An instrument that can record the ground motion from an earthquake.
Seismic waves in which particles of material move back and forth perpendicular to the direction in which the wave itself moves.
Stop-start movement along a fault plane caused by friction, which prevents movement until stress builds up sufficiently.
The push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subjected to a force; formally, the force applied per unit area over which the force acts.
Seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface.
A graph that plots the time since an earthquake began on the vertical axis, and the distance to the epicenter on the horizontal axis.
A large wave along the sea surface triggered by an earthquake or large submarine slump.