Flashcards in Chapter 05 Vocab Deck (35):
Hailstone-like clumps of wet ash that fall from a volcanic eruptive cloud.
A volcano that has erupted within the past few centuries and will likely erupt again.
Tiny glass shards formed when a fine spray of exploded lava freezes instantly upon contact with the atmosphere.
Lava that is so viscous that it breaks into boulder-like blocks as it moves; typically, such lavas are andesitic or rhyolitic.
A large piece of pyroclastic debris thrown into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption.
A large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly flat floor, formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below.
A subaerial volcano consisting of a cone-shaped pile of tephra whose slope approaches the angle of repose for tephra.
A type of fracturing that yields roughly hexagonal columns of basalt; columnar joints form when a dike, sill, or lava flow cools.
(1) A circular depression at the top of a volcanic mound; (2) a depression formed by the impact of a meteorite.
A volcano that has not erupted for hundreds to thousands of years but does have the potential to erupt again in the future.
An eruption that yields mostly lava, not ash.
The character of a particular volcanic eruption; geologists name styles based on typical examples (e.g., Hawaiian; Strombolian).
Violent volcanic eruptions that produce clouds and avalanches of pyroclastic debris.
A volcano that was active in the past but has now shut off entirely and will not erupt in the future.
A conduit in a magma chamber in the shape of a long crack through which magma rises and erupts at the surface.
Vast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land; they may form where a rift develops above a continental hot spot, and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity.
A rubbly extrusive rock consisting of glassy debris formed in a submarine or sub-ice eruption.
Rock formed when deposits of pyroclastic flows solidify.
A thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.
Any pyroclastic particle that is 2 to 64 mm in diameter (i.e., marble-sized); the particles can consist of frozen lava clots, pumice fragments, or ash clumps.
large igneous province (LIP)
A region in which huge volumes of lava and/or ash erupted over a relatively short interval of geologic time.
The empty space left when a lava tunnel drains; this happens when the surface of a lava flow solidifies while the inner part of the flow continues to stream downslope.
A space below ground filled with magma.
A lava flow with a surface texture of smooth, glassy, rope-like ridges.
Marble-sized chunks consisting of frothy, siliceous igneous rock that fall from a volcanic eruptive cloud.
Fragmented material that sprayed out of a volcano and landed on the ground or sea floor in solid form.
A fast-moving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris mix with air and flow down the side of a volcano.
(also "cinder cone") An accumulation of lapilli-sized or larger fragments formed from a volcanic eruption that spatters clots of basaltic lava.
A subaerial volcano with a broad, gentle dome, formed either from low-viscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets.
A large, cone-shaped subaerial volcano consisting of alternating layers of lava and tephra.
A volcano that erupts a vast amount (more than 1,000 cubic km) of volcanic material during a single event; none have erupted during recorded human history.
Unconsolidated accumulations of pyroclastic grains.
A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.
Open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock.