Chapter 06 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 06 Vocab Deck (29):
1

Bed

Layering or stratification in sedimentary rocks.

2

Biochemical sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rock formed from material (such as shells) produced by living organisms.

3

Breccia

Coarse sedimentary rock consisting of angular fragments; or rock broken into angular fragments by faulting.

4

Cementation

The phase of lithification in which cement, consisting of minerals that precipitate from groundwater, partially or completely fills the spaces between clasts and attaches each grain to its neighbor.

5

Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rocks made up of minerals that precipitate directly from water solution.

6

Clastic Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rock consisting of cemented-together detritus derived from the weathering of preexisting rock.

7

Coal

A black, organic rock consisting of greater than 50% carbon; it forms from the buried and altered remains of plant material.

8

Compaction

The phase of lithification in which the pressure of the overburden on the buried rock squeezes out water and air that was trapped between clasts, and the clasts press tightly together.

9

Conglomerate

Very coarse-grained sedimentary rock consisting of rounded clasts.

10

Delta

A wedge of sediment formed at a river mouth when the running water of the stream enters standing water, the current slows, the stream loses competence, and sediment settles out.

11

Deposition

The process by which sediment settles out of a transporting medium.

12

Depositional environment

A setting in which sediments accumulate; its character (fluvial, deltaic, reef, glacial, etc.) reflects local conditions.

13

Detritus

The chunks and smaller grains of rock broken off outcrops by physical weathering.

14

Erosion

The grinding away and removal of Earth's surface materials by moving water, air, or ice.

15

Geologic map

A map showing the distribution of rock units and structures across a region.

16

Limestone

Sedimentary rock composed of calcite.

17

Lithification

The transformation of loose sediment into solid rock through compaction and cementation.

18

Mudstone

Very fine-grained sedimentary rock that will not easily split into sheets.

19

Organic Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rock (such as coal) formed from carbon-rich relicts of organisms.

20

Regression

The seaward migration of a shoreline caused by a lowering of sea level.

21

Sandstone

Coarse-grained sedimentary rock consisting almost entirely of quartz.

22

Sedimentary basin

A depression, created as a consequence of subsidence, that fills with sediment.

23

Sedimentary rock

Rock that forms either by the cementing together of fragments broken off preexisting rock or by the precipitation of mineral crystals out of water solutions at or near the Earth's surface.

24

Siltstone

Fine-grained sedimentary rock generally composed of very small quartz grains.

25

Sorting

(1) The range of clast sizes in a collection of sediment; (2) the degree to which sediment has been separated by flowing currents into different-size fractions.

26

Stratigraphic formation

A recognizable layer of a specific sedimentary rock type or set of rock types, deposited during a certain time interval, that can be traced over a broad region.

27

Subsidence

The vertical sinking of the Earth's surface in a region, relative to a reference plane.

28

Transgression

The inland migration of shoreline resulting from a rise in sea level.

29

Turbidity current

A submarine avalanche of sediment and water that speeds down a submarine slope.