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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (16):
1

determinism

the assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place

2

explanatory fiction

a hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenon (why an organism pushes the lever when the light is on and food is available but doesn't push the lever when the light is off and no food is available)

3

science

a systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its primary role, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as a requirement for believability, parsimony as a value, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience

4

methodological behaviorism

a philosophical position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed as outside the realm of science

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empiricism

objective observation of the phenomena of interest

6

behaviorism

includes everything people do. An organism's interaction with its environment which results in measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment.

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experiment

comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (DV) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to another

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functional relation

exists when a well controlled experiment reveals that a specific change in one event (DV) can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of another event (IV) and that the change in the DV was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors

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hypothetical construct

a presumed but unobserved process or entity (Freud's ed)

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applied behavior analysis

the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior

11

mentalism

an approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner" dimension exists and either directly causes or mediates some forms of behavior, if not all

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replication

repeating conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity

13

radical behaviorism

a form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events

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parsimony

the process of ruling out simple logical explanations before considering more complex explanations

15

experimental analysis of behavior

a natural science approach to the study of behavior founded by BF Skinner. Emphasis on describing functional relations between behavior and controlling variables in the environment over formal theory testing

16

philosophic doubt

continually question the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge