Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (37)

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1

## Statistics

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Focuses on the organization, analysis, and interpretation of a group of numbers

Method of pursuing truth

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## 2 Types of Statistics

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Descriptive

Inferential

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## Descriptive Statistics

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Summarizing a group of scores or otherwise making them more understandable

To describe a group of numbers from a research study

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## Inferential Statistics

### Drawing conclusions based on the scores collected in a research study but going beyond them

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## Example of Interferential Statistics

### Making inferences about a large group of individuals based on a research study in which a much smaller number of individuals took part in

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## Variable

### Characteristic that can have different values

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## Values

### Possible number/category that a score can have

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## Score

### Particular persons value on a variable

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## Numerical Variable

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Values are number

Quantitative variable

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## Types of Numeric Variables

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Equal-Interval Variable

Rank-Order Variable

Nominal Variable

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## Equal-Interval Variable

### The numbers stand for approximately equal amounts of what is being measured

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## Example of Equal-Interval Variables

### Difference between 2.5 and 2.8 is = to the difference 3.0 and 3.3

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## Ratio Scale

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An equal-interval variable is measured on a ratio scale if it has an absolute zero point

The value of zero on the variable indicates a complete absence of the variable.

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## Rank-Order Variable

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Numeric variable in which the values are ranks

Ordinal variable

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## Example of Rank-Order Variable

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Class standings,

Place finished in a race

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## Nominal Variable

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Values that are categories

Names, not numbers

Also called categorical variable

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## Levels of Measurement

### Types of underlying measures and numerical information provided by a measure, such as equal-interval, rank-order, and nominal

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## Discrete Variable

### Has specific values and that cannot have values between these specific values (whole numbers)

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## Continuous Variable

### Infinite number of values between any two values

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## Frequency Tables

### Ordered listing of number of individuals having each of the different values for a particular variable

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## Grouped Frequency Tables

### Frequency table in which the number of individuals (frequency) is given for each interval of values

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## Intervals

### Range of values in a grouped frequency tables that are grouped together

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## Histograms

### Bar-like graph of a frequency distribution in which the values are plotted along horizontal axis and bar height is the frequency

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## Frequency Distribution

### Pattern of frequencies over the various values

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## Unimodal Distribution

### FD with 1 value clearly having a larger frequency than any other

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## Bimodal Distribution

### FD with 2 approximately equal frequencies, clearly larger than any of the others

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## Multimodal Distribution

### FD with 2+ high frequencies separated by a lower frequency

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## Rectangular Distribution

### FD where all values have approximately the same frequency

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## Symmetrical Distribution

### Pattern of frequency on the left and right side are mirror images of each other

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## Skewed Distribution

### Scores pile up on one side of the middle and are spread out on the other side

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## Skewed to the Left

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Also called negatively skewed

Tail to the left

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## Skewed to the Right

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Also called positively skewed

Tail to the right

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## Floor Effect

### Many scores pile up at the low end of a distribution because it is not possible to have any lower

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## Ceiling Effect

### Many scores pile up at the high end because it is not possible to have a higher score

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## Normal Curve

### Specific, mathematically defined , bell-shaped frequency distribution that is symmetrical and unimodal

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## Kurtosis

### Extent to which a FD deviates from a normal curve in terms of whether its curve in the middle is more peaked or flat than the normal curve

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