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Flashcards in W1 Deck (39)
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1

Purpose of A Research Study

To test a theory of the effectiveness of a practical application

2

The True Experiment

Standard against which all other methods are compared

3

Experimental Group

A group in which the level of X is changed

4

Control Group

Comparison group in which X is kept at normal levels

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Participants

Individuals studied in research

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Independent Variable

Variable that is systematically changed
Divides the groups

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Experimental Manipulation

Procedure of systematically changing the IV

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Dependent Variable

Variable that is supposed to change as a result of the study

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Population

All the people on earth of the type being studied

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Sample

Particular participants selected to be studied form a population

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Characteristics of the Ideal Research Design (4)

1. Participants in the experimental and control groups are identical
2. EG and CG are exposed to identical situations (except for manipulation of IV)
3. Sample studied perfectly represents the intended population
4. Measurement of the DV is completely accurate and appropriate for what is supposed to be measuring

12

Random Assignment

No systematic difference
'Random' meaning the use of a strictly random procedure and not 'randomly' choosing people

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Matched Group Design

Matching two groups together
No control group (kinda)

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Repeated Measure Design

Create 2 identical groups by testing the same people twice
Weak because if changes found, there are many other explanations that are possible
Stronger in a lab experiment to prove the accuracy

15

Counterbalancing

Half of the participants are tested first in one condition and the other half first in the other condition

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Correlation Research Design

Tests whether there is an association between two variables as they exist in a group of people without any attempt at experimental manipulation

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Single Subject Research

Intense examination of a single group, organization, or individual, using the case study of participant observation approach

18

Why is Single Subject Research Used?

Because it gives a rich understanding of all the complexities of what is being studied rather than forcing attention on a few variables that could/could not be critical

19

Placebo Effects

The influence of a participant's expectation or motivation to do well

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Hawthorne Effects

The influence of the attention the participant receives and of the participant's reaction to being a participant

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Experimenter Effects

Unintended influences of the researcher on the study

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Generalizability

Particular sample of participants studied accurately represents the larger population

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Internal Validity

The equivalence of the experimental and control groups and equivalence of circumstances

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Random Sampling

Optimal method for ensuring that a particular group of people studied is representative of the larger population

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Example of Self-Report

Questionnaires or interviews

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Example of Behavioral

Rating scales of children's play behavior, number of customers that enter a store, reaction times

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Example of Physiological

Hormone levels, heart rate, blood flow, etc.

28

Ways of Measurement

Self-Report
Behavioral
Physiological

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Test Retest Reliability

Same group is tested twice

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Internal Consistency

Scores on half are compared to scores on other half

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Interrater Reliability

Degree of agreement between observers

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Reliability

Accuracy/consistency

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Validity

Whether it actually measures what it claims to

34

Response Bias

Respondents try to make a good impression or to answer thinking they satisfy the observer/researcher

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Content Validity

Content of measure appears to get at all the different aspects of things being measured

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Criterion-Related Validity

Doing a special study in which the researcher compares scores on the measure to some other likely indicator

37

Predictive Validity

Used especially where a measure is designed for predictive purposes (job or educational placement)

38

Concurrent Validity

Comparing scores on one measure to those on another that directly measures the same thing

39

Construct Validity

A study using this measure successfully showed an effect that was predicted by theory