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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (102):
1

What is memory? What is it acquired through?

The record of our past experiences, which are acquired through learning?

2

Aristotle is one of the ____ thinkers to write about memory.

Earliest

3

Aristotle used ____ to formulate ____.

Data, Theories

4

What is Aristotle's theory? What does it argue?

Associationism, argued that memory depends on the formation of linkages between pairs of events, sensations, or ideas.

5

What does contiguity mean?

Events experienced at the same time (temporal contiguity) or place (spatial contiguity) are linked together.

6

What is frequency?

The more we experience contiguous events, the more strongly we associate them.

7

Similarity?

If 2 things are similar, the thought or sensation of one will trigger the other.

8

Aristotle's empiricism?

The idea that all ideas are a result of experience.

9

Nativism?

Bulk of knowledge is inborn.

10

Who said "I think therefore I am"?

Descartes.

11

Who was a firm believer in dualism? What does it mean?

Descartes, the principle that the mind and body are two separate entities.

12

Descartes believed the process of the body moving began with a ____ and resulted in a motor ____.

Stimulus, response.

13

The pathway from sensory stimulus to motor response is called?

Reflex arc.

14

What is a reflex arc?

Pathway from stimulus to response.

15

Was John Locke a believer of nativism or empiricism?

Empiricism.

16

Tabula rasa belonged to which philosopher?

John Locke.

17

Who is William James?

First professor to teach psychology, taught at Harvard.

18

What is learning?

The process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of experience interacting with the world

19

William James was a strong believe in ____.

Associationism.

20

William James came up with a ____ model.

Memory

21

Erasmus Darwin was a personal doctor to whom?

King George the III of England.

22

Erasmus Darwin is a vocal proponent of what theory?

Evolution, stating that species change over time, with new traits or characteristics emerging and being passed down from one generation to the next.

23

Charles Darwin, son of ____ _____, observed what animal in it's differences by area that it resided?

Erasmus Darwin, Finches (birds)

24

What was Charles Darwin's most important legacy?

The theory of natural selecting, which proposed a mechanism for how evolution occurs.

25

What is evolutionary psychology?

The study of how behavior evolves through natural selection.

26

William James was a strong believe in ____.

Associationism.

27

William James came up with a ____ model.

Memory

28

Erasmus Darwin was a personal doctor to whom?

King George the III of England.

29

Erasmus Darwin is a vocal proponent of what theory?

Evolution, stating that species change over time, with new traits or characteristics emerging and being passed down from one generation to the next.

30

Charles Darwin, son of ____ _____, observed what animal in it's differences by area that it resided?

Erasmus Darwin, Finches (birds)

31

What was Charles Darwin's most important legacy?

The theory of natural selecting, which proposed a mechanism for how evolution occurs.

32

What is evolutionary psychology?

The study of how behavior evolves through natural selection.

33

Francis Galton, Erasmus' grandson, rejected what view?

Tabula rasa, all babies cannot possibly be born the same

34

What is a correlational study?

A study that examined the degree to which variables tend to vary together (as one increases (decreases),does the other increase (decrease) too?)

35

Experimental Group VS Control Group

Experimental group is treated in a matter dictated by the hypothesis whilst the control group is not given any treatment.

36

Galton did what experiment with praying?

Tested if praying made your life longer, turned out to be the opposite.

37

What are confounds?

Extraneous variables (such as lifestyle and dying) that happen to co-vary with the variable.

38

What is the program of eugenics?

A program encouraging marriage and procreation amongst the healthiest, smartest, strongest members of society and vice versa.

39

What is the theory of natural selection?

It proposes that evolution occurs when one variation of a naturally occurring and inheritable trait give an organism a survival advantage, making the organism more fit - more likely to survival, reproduce and pass the trait to the offspring.

40

What is a retention curve?

A graph that measures how much information at each point in time following learning.

41

What was Hermann Ebbinghaus mostly interested in?

Forgetting- how memory deteriorates over time.

42

Most forgetting occurs when?

Early on.

43

Dependent VS Independent variable?

An independent variable is the variable that is changed or controlled in a scientific experiment to test the effects on the dependent variable.

A dependent variable is the variable being tested and measured in a scientific experiment.

44

Subject bias?

When something you think influences how you perform.

45

Blind design?

When the participant does not know the hypothesis being tested.

46

Experimenter bias can be avoided by use of ____-____ design.

Double blind.

47

Placebo?

Inactive treatment that looks like it is active.

48

Classical conditioning belongs to whom?

Pavlov.

49

Generalization?

The ability to transfer past learning to novel problems.

50

Instrumental conditioning/Operant conditioning?

Organisms learn to make responses in order to obtain or avoid important consequences.

51

Law of effect?

The probability of a particular response increased or decreased depending on the consequences that followed.

52

Hermann Ebbinghaus' technique of studying retention was what?

Having lists of nonsense words and making participants remember them.

53

Who discovered the basic method for training animals to associate a neutral stimulus with a significant stimulus?

Pavlov.

54

Who came up with the principle of law of effect?

Edward Thorndike.

55

What is behaviorism?

It argued that psychology restrict itself to the study of observable behaviors and avoid reference to unobserved and i'll defined mental events (ie thought).

56

What is radical behaviorism?

Consciousness and free will are an illusion. (BF Skinner)

57

Cognitive map?

An internal psychological representation of the spatial layout of the external world.

58

Latent learning?

Learning that takes place even when there is no specific motivation to obtain/avoid i.e. food or shock)

59

John Watson was the father of what view?

Behaviorism.

60

Edward Tolman combined the behavorist methodology with what?

Goals and cognitive maps of the environment.

61

What is mathematical psychology?

Using mathematical equations to describe laws of learning and memory.

62

What is cognitive science?

The interdisciplinary study of thought, reasoning and other mental functions.

63

How does a connectionist model look?

Ideas and concepts in the external world are not represented as distinct symbols but rather as patterns of activity over populations of many nodes.

64

Distributed representation?

When information consists of the activation of many different nodes (represented by more than one node).

65

What is a nervous system?

An organisms system of tissues specialized for distributing and processing information.

66

What are neurons?

A specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.

67

Where is the central nervous system (CNS)?

Where many of the events responsible for learning and memory take place.

68

What is the central nervous system made up of?

The CNS is made up from the brain and spinal cord.

69

What does the peripheral nervous system (PNS) consist of?

Nerve fibers that carry information from sensory receptors (i.e. visual receptors in eye or touch receptors in skin) into the central nervous system and then carry the instructions from the CNS to the muscles and organs.

70

William James was a strong believe in ____.

Associationism.

71

William James came up with a ____ model.

Memory

72

Erasmus Darwin was a personal doctor to whom?

King George the III of England.

73

Erasmus Darwin is a vocal proponent of what theory?

Evolution, stating that species change over time, with new traits or characteristics emerging and being passed down from one generation to the next.

74

Charles Darwin, son of ____ _____, observed what animal in it's differences by area that it resided?

Erasmus Darwin, Finches (birds)

75

What was Charles Darwin's most important legacy?

The theory of natural selecting, which proposed a mechanism for how evolution occurs.

76

What is evolutionary psychology?

The study of how behavior evolves through natural selection.

77

William James was a strong believe in ____.

Associationism.

78

William James came up with a ____ model.

Memory

79

Erasmus Darwin was a personal doctor to whom?

King George the III of England.

80

Erasmus Darwin is a vocal proponent of what theory?

Evolution, stating that species change over time, with new traits or characteristics emerging and being passed down from one generation to the next.

81

Charles Darwin, son of ____ _____, observed what animal in it's differences by area that it resided?

Erasmus Darwin, Finches (birds)

82

What was Charles Darwin's most important legacy?

The theory of natural selecting, which proposed a mechanism for how evolution occurs.

83

What is evolutionary psychology?

The study of how behavior evolves through natural selection.

84

Experiences change our ____.

Behavior.

85

We learn based on changes of ____ pattern of neurons in the brain.

Firing.

86

Neurons can change by:

Experience, injury, rewiring/strengthening of connections.

87

What is memory?

A record of past experiences.

88

Learning and memory go ____ in ____.

Hand in hand.

89

3 general time slots when we experience plasticity?

Beginning if life, in case of brain injury, general learning.

90

High brain function before an accident involving the brain will result in how much function after the accident?

It will be better than if it was someone stupid.

91

Clive Wearing... what happened to him?

He had herpes in his brain, damaging his hippocampus. He had retrograde amnesia as well as antograde.

92

Anterograde amnesia?

Inability to form new declarative memories from the point of injury forward.

93

Retrograde amnesia?

Loss of ability to access memories that were once previously available.

94

3 key linkages in associationism?

Contiguity, frequency and similarity.

95

What does the nervous system deal with?

Collection, distribution and processing of incoming/outgoing information.

96

The brain needs ____ to function.

Oxygen.

97

Afferent vs Efferent nerves?

Afferent = take it in
Efferent = send out packaged information

98

2 divisions in the nervous system:

Somatic division = movement of body
Autonomic division = functioning of organs within body

99

Frontal Lobe is also where ____'s area is.

Broca.

100

Wernicke's area is important for processing ____ information.

New.

101

Broca's area deals with ____ production, as well as primary ____ projection area.

Language, motor.

102

Downside of CT scan?

Shows soft tissues of brain less clearly than it shows tumors.