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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (34):
1

What is a place cell?

A neuron that fires maximally when the organism enters a particular location within an environment.

2

Place field?

The spatial location that evokes maximal activity in a place cell.

3

Constraint induced movement therapy?

A motor rehabilitation technique in which unaffected limbs are restrained to increase usage of dysfunctional limbs.

4

What is a cochlear implant?

A device that electrically stimulates auditory nerves to produce hearing sensations in profoundly deaf individuals, primarily to assist them in processing speech.

5

Learning that involves strengthening connections between cells that work together (typically neurons) is called ____ learning.

Hebbian.

6

Non associative learning?

Learning that involves only one, relatively isolated stimulus at a time- you don't need to connect it to something to understand how to react to it.

7

Associative learning?

Learning to associate one stimulus with another, or learning to associate a particular stimulus with a new response, one stimulus may be associated with another stimulus.

8

Is re habituation faster or slower than the initial habituation?

Faster.

9

Staring duration = ____ time.

Fixation.

10

Coolidge effect?

Didhabituation of sexual responding - check if a rat is tired or just disinterested by giving him a break and introducing a new female rat.

11

Prior experience improves ____.

Recognition.

12

Perceptual learning?

When someone is repeatedly exposed to a stimulus they begin to notice new things about it.

13

Example of mere exposure learning?

Never learning how to bake bread but being exposed to it for many years thus knowing some stuff about it.

14

Gibson and Walk rat experiment?

Rat with shapes in cage.

15

What you learn in one situation is not transferable to another situation.

True.

16

Fiorentini and Bernardi.

Showed pics, tilted them a bit, subjects still recognized them, did a huge flip, and they didn't see it... because the knowledge doesn't necessarily transfer.

17

The more difficult a task is, the more ____ is required in your learning.

Specificity.

18

Tolman and honzik put rats in maze:

They eventually learned it. Spatial learning biotch.

19

____ is released by neurotransmitters.

Glutamate.

20

If you constantly activate the sensory neuron and there is no danger, your body will ignore it - why?

It will think there is no reason in wasted glutamate.

21

Sensitization in sea hares:

Shock in one place, other pathways will also be effected, the whole body will be on high alert.

22

Cortical plasticity?

Changes in receptive field causes reorganization in the cortex, doesn't mean your hand responds whenever any other body part does - but it will be stronger hashtag fine tune the cortex and associated neurons.

23

Once you don't have repeated exposure it goes back to the ____.

Baseline.

24

When someone loses ability to be stimulated by a particular sensory stimulus, there isn't a cell death nor does it stop functioning, instead the other areas become ____ because of ____.

Stronger, reorganization.

25

Neurons in unused areas ____ and begin to be used by other modalities.

Reorganize.

26

Hebbian learning = neurons that ____ together ____ together.

Fire, wire.

27

If a few neurons become activated, you have a higher chance of what?

Other neurons being activated as well.

28

What happens if you don't have use of one arm, then you suddenly can use both?

The function is now again shared between the two arms.

29

Sex is known as an appetitive system. But what happens if someone is sexually abused?

Sex is no longer considered an appetitive system.

30

An animal responds faster with ____ experience.

Repeated.

31

What happens when you condition a stimulus and then present a neutral stimulus?

It won't do anything. If you need a light to signify incoming shock, then a tone is presented along with the light and you try to present the tone on it's own, the animal will not think it is going to he shocked. This is called blocking.

32

What is blocking?

A paradigm where a stimulus gets blocked out, it was already presented with something that became a CS.

33

Cues signaling an unconditioned stimulus MUST BE:

Useful, non redundant(new) and reliable(constantly predict what we expect is coming).

34

Error correction learning?

Suggests that errors on each learning trial lead to small performance changes that work to reduce error in the following trial i.e. Meeting someone from a new culture and adjusting your behavior so it is appropriate.