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1

Psychology
• 5 things

•Scientific study of all behavior and mental processes
•It is a scientific study
•Deals with all processes
•Deals with behavior
•Mental proceses

2

Scientific study

Uses objective methods and follows ethical guidelines

3

Deals with all processes

• Both destructive and productive
• In organisms (wetware) and machines (hardware and software)

4

Deals with behavior
•definition
•3 examples

•Behavior is an observable action
•Smoking, spoken/written words, brain waves

5

Mental processes
•definition
•3 examples

• inferred by observing behavior
• problem solving, emotion, imagination

6

7 contemporary approaches

1. Biological/neuroscience
2. Behavioral approach
3. Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytical
4. Humanistic
5. Cognitive
6. Evolutionary
7. Sociocultural

7

Biological/neuroscience

Focusing on brain and nervous system

8

Behavioral approach

Behavior shaped by the environment

9

Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytical

Unconscious forces and childhood experiences

10

Humanistic

Strengths, growth, freedom of choice

11

Cognitive

Mental processes, such as memory and interlligence

12

Evolutionary

Adapting to meet basic needs

13

Sociocultural

Influence of social environment on development

14

3 types of psych research

1. Experimental (shows cause and effect)
2. Descriptive (Gives data some content)
3. Correlational (shows relationships)

15

Variables

Conditions/ characteristics that can change (within) or differ (between)

16

Operational defintion

Exactly how a variable is measured
• sleep deprivation = X hrs without sleep

17

Two categories of variables

1. Independent
2. Dependent

18

Independent variable

• directly manipulated
• experimenter controls
• example: I said memorize words

19

Dependent variable

• changes after manipulation
• depends on participants
• these are the outcomes
• Example: her scores

20

2014 sleep deprivation vs memorization experiment (Fostick)
• what were the 2 variables

1. Amount of sleep
2. Speech perception

21

What was the control group? experimental group?

• control group: regular sleep (18 young adults)
• experimental group: 24 hrs w/o sleep (55 young adults who were checked every 20 minutes)

22

Speech perception

Repeating words presented at different speeds and types of background noise

23

Minimizing confounding variables

•Other influences/ interference = confounding variables
• had to have normal hearing
• Tested in native language
• No learning disabilities

24

Once planned, secure approvals by

Humans- goes through Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Non humans- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

25

what does the Institutional Review Board look for

Informed consent from participants

26

4 types of descriptive studies

1. Case study
2. Interviews and focus groups
3. Surveys and questionnaires
4. Observations

27

Do descriptive studies show cause and effect? If not then what do they show?

No they do not. They show context or relationship to other variables

28

Correlational research
•definition
• what does it show
•what is it
•what are the ranges

•Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together
•shows relationships, associations
•a statistic
•-1.00 to +1.00
•(closer to 0 = weak, no valuable relationship, closer to either -1.00 or +1.00 = strong, important relationship)

29

Positive correlation

Variables move in the same direction

30

Critical thinking

: process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions and evaluating

31

Empirical Method

Gaining knowledge through the observation of events, the collection of data, and logical reasoning

32

Neuroscience

Scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system

33

Psychology's scientific method
(5 steps)

1.Observing some phenomenon
2.Formulating hypothesis and predictions
3.Testing through empirical research
4.Drawing conclusions
5.Evaluating conclusions

34

3 types of research

1. Descriptive research
2. Correlational research
3. Experimental research

35

Longitudinal design

Systematic observation that involves obtaining measures of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time

36

Experiment

Carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable

37

Random assignment

Resarcher’s assignment to participants to groups by chance to reduce the likelihood than an experiments results will be due to preexisting differences between groups

38

Confederate

A person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated

39

Sample

the subset of the population chosen by the investigator f or study

40

Naturalistic observation

the observation of behavior in a real-world setting