Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (55):
Freud's theory that proposed that biological drives, especially sexual ones, are a crucial influence on development
Watson's theory that argued that children's development is determined by environmental factors, especially the rewards and punishments that follow the child's actions
The genes we receive from our parents
Social and physical environments that influence our development
Each person's complete set of hereditary information
The study of stable changes in gene expression that are mediated by the environment
A biochemical process that influences behavior by suppressing gene activity and expression
The idea that changes with age occur gradually
Example of Continuous Development
Pine tree`growing taller and taller
The idea that changes with age include occasional large shifts
Example of Discontinuous Development
The transition from caterpillar to butterfly
Involves voluntary control of one's emotions and thoughts
What does the anterior cingulate do?
Setting and attending to goals
What does the limbic area do?
Plays a large role in emotional reactions
Chemicals involved in communication among brain cells
The physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child's environment
A measure of social class based on income and education
An approach to testing beliefs that involves choosing a question, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion
The degree to which independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent
The amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior
The degree of similarity of a child's performance on two or more occasions
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
The degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the factor that the researcher is testing
The degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research
A research procedure in which all participants are asked to answer the same questions
A procedure in which questions are adjusted in accord with the answers the interviewee provides
Examination of ongoing behavior in an environment not controlled by the researcher
A method that involves presenting an identical situation to each child and recording the child's behavior
Attributes that vary across individuals and situations, such as age, sex, and popularity
Studies intended to indicate how two variables are related to each other
The association between two variables
The concept that a correlation between two variables does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of the other
The concept that a correlation between two variables may stem from both being influenced by some third variable
A group of approaches that allow inferences about causes and effects to be drawn
A procedure in which each child has an equal chance of being assigned to each group within an experiment
The ability of researchers to determine the specific experiences that children have during the course of an experiment
A group of children in an experimental design who are presented the experience of interest
The group of children in an experimental design who are not presented the experience of interest but in other ways are treated similarly
The experience that children in the experimental group receive and that children in the control group do not receive
A behavior that is measured to determine whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable
A research method in which children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period
A method of study in which the same children are studied twice or more over a substantial length of time
A method of study in which the same children are studied repeatedly over a short period
Counting up from the larger addend the number of times indicated by the smaller addend
How do nature and nurture together shape development?
Every aspect of development reflect both people's endowment and the experiences that they have had
How do children shape their own development?
Use of language
Choice of activities
How does change occur?
Complex interplay among experiences, genes, brain structures, and activities
How does sociocultural context influence development?
Contexts include the people with whom children interact directly, the institutions they participate in, and societal beliefs and values
How do children become so different from each other?
Differences reflect differences in children's genes, in their treatment by other people, in their interpretations of their own experiences, and in their choices of their environment
How can research promote children's well-being?
Principles, findings, and methods form child-development research are being applied to improve the quality of the child's life
What is used to make great advances in understanding children?
What needs to occur for a measure to be useful?
Relevance to the hypothesis
What are the main situations used to gather data about children?