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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (55):
1

Psychoanalytical Theory

Freud's theory that proposed that biological drives, especially sexual ones, are a crucial influence on development

2

Behaviorist Theory

Watson's theory that argued that children's development is determined by environmental factors, especially the rewards and punishments that follow the child's actions

3

Nature

Biological endowment
The genes we receive from our parents

4

Nurture

Social and physical environments that influence our development

5

Genome

Each person's complete set of hereditary information

6

Epigenetics

The study of stable changes in gene expression that are mediated by the environment

7

Methylation

A biochemical process that influences behavior by suppressing gene activity and expression

8

Continuous Development

The idea that changes with age occur gradually
Small increments

9

Example of Continuous Development

Pine tree`growing taller and taller

10

Discontinuous Development

The idea that changes with age include occasional large shifts

11

Example of Discontinuous Development

The transition from caterpillar to butterfly

12

Effortful Attention

Involves voluntary control of one's emotions and thoughts
Inhibiting impulses
Controlling emotions
Focusing attention

13

What does the anterior cingulate do?

Setting and attending to goals

14

What does the limbic area do?

Plays a large role in emotional reactions

15

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals involved in communication among brain cells

16

Sociocultural Context

The physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child's environment

17

Socioeconomic Status

A measure of social class based on income and education

18

Scientific Method

An approach to testing beliefs that involves choosing a question, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion

19

Hypothesis

Educated guesses

20

Reliability

The degree to which independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent

21

Interrater Reliability

The amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior

22

Test-Retest Reliability

The degree of similarity of a child's performance on two or more occasions

23

Validity

The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure

24

Internal Validity

The degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the factor that the researcher is testing

25

External Validity

The degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research

26

Structured Interview

A research procedure in which all participants are asked to answer the same questions

27

Clinical Interview

A procedure in which questions are adjusted in accord with the answers the interviewee provides

28

Naturalistic Observation

Examination of ongoing behavior in an environment not controlled by the researcher

29

Structured Observation

A method that involves presenting an identical situation to each child and recording the child's behavior

30

Variables

Attributes that vary across individuals and situations, such as age, sex, and popularity

31

Correlational Designs

Studies intended to indicate how two variables are related to each other

32

Correlation

The association between two variables

33

Direction-of-Causation Problem

The concept that a correlation between two variables does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of the other

34

Third-Variable Problem

The concept that a correlation between two variables may stem from both being influenced by some third variable

35

Experimental Designs

A group of approaches that allow inferences about causes and effects to be drawn

36

Random Assignment

A procedure in which each child has an equal chance of being assigned to each group within an experiment

37

Experimental Control

The ability of researchers to determine the specific experiences that children have during the course of an experiment

38

Experimental Group

A group of children in an experimental design who are presented the experience of interest

39

Control Group

The group of children in an experimental design who are not presented the experience of interest but in other ways are treated similarly

40

Independent Variable

The experience that children in the experimental group receive and that children in the control group do not receive

41

Dependent Variable

A behavior that is measured to determine whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable

42

Cross-Sectional Design

A research method in which children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period

43

Longitudinal Design

A method of study in which the same children are studied twice or more over a substantial length of time

44

Microgenetic Design

A method of study in which the same children are studied repeatedly over a short period

45

Counting-On Strategy

Counting up from the larger addend the number of times indicated by the smaller addend

46

How do nature and nurture together shape development?

Every aspect of development reflect both people's endowment and the experiences that they have had

47

How do children shape their own development?

Attentional patterns
Use of language
Choice of activities

48

How does change occur?

Complex interplay among experiences, genes, brain structures, and activities

49

How does sociocultural context influence development?

Contexts include the people with whom children interact directly, the institutions they participate in, and societal beliefs and values

50

How do children become so different from each other?

Differences reflect differences in children's genes, in their treatment by other people, in their interpretations of their own experiences, and in their choices of their environment

51

How can research promote children's well-being?

Principles, findings, and methods form child-development research are being applied to improve the quality of the child's life

52

What is used to make great advances in understanding children?

Scientific method

53

What needs to occur for a measure to be useful?

Relevance to the hypothesis
Reliability
Validity

54

What are the main situations used to gather data about children?

Interviews
Naturalistic observations
Structured observations

55

What are the high ethical standards?

Ensuring the children are not harmed physically or psychologically by the research
Obtaining consent from parents and/or child
Perserving anonymity
Correcting any inaccurate impressions that the children form during the study