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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (54):
1

Genome

The complete set of genes of any organism

2

Genotype

The genetic material an individual inherits

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Phenotype

The observable expression of the genotype, including both body characteristics and behavior

4

Environment

Every aspect of an individual and his or her surroundings other than genes

5

Chromosomes

Molecules of DNA that transmit genetic information
Made up of DNA

6

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid
Molecules that carry all the biochemical instructions involved in the formation and functioning of an organism

7

Genes

Sections of chromosomes that are the basic unit of heredity in all living things

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Sex Chromosomes

The chromosomes (X & Y) that determine an individual's gender

9

Mutation

A change in a section of DNA

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Crossing Over

The process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to the other; crossing over promotes variability among individuals

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Regulator Genes

Genes that control the activity of other genes

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Alleles

Two or more different forms of a gene

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Dominant Allele

The allele that, if present, gets expressed

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Recessive Allele

The allele that is not expressed if a dominant allele is present

15

Homozygous

Having two of the same allele for a trait

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Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a trait

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Polygenic Inheritance

Inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene

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Norm of Reaction

All the phenotypes that can theoretically result from a given genotype in relation to all the environments in which it can survive and develop

19

Phenylketonuria

PKU
A disorder related to a defective recessive gene on chromosome 12 that prevents metabolism of phenylalanine

20

Behavior Genetics

The science concerned with how variation in behavior and development results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors

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Heritable

Refers to any characteristics or traits that are influenced by heredity

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Multifactorial

Refers to traits that are affected by a host of environmental factors as well as genetic ones

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Heritability

A statistical estimate of the proportion of the measured variance on a trait among individuals in a given population that is attributable to genetic differences among those individuals

24

Neurons

Cells that are specialized for sending and receiving messages between the brain and all parts of the body, as well as within the brain itself

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Cell Body

A component of the neuron that contains the basic biological material that keeps the neuron from functioning

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Dendrites

Neural fibers that receive input from other cells and conduct it toward the cell body in the form of electrical impulses

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Axons

Neural fibers that conduct electrical signals away from the cell body to connections with other neurons

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Synapses

Microscopic junctions between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendritic branches or cell body of another

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Glial Cells

Cells in the brain that provide a variety of critical supportive functions

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Myelin Sheath

A fatty sheath that forms around certain axons in the body and increases the speed and efficiency of information transmission

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Cerebral Cortex

The gray matter of the brain that plays a primary role in what is thought to be particularly humanlike functioning
Seeing and hearing to writing to feeling emotion

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Lobes

Major areas of the cortex associated with general categories of behavior

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Occipital Lobe

The lobe of the cortex that is primarily involved in processing visual information

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Temporal Lobe

The lobe of the cortex that is associated with memory, visual recognition, and the processing of emotions and auditory information

35

Parietal Lobe

Governs spatial processing as well as integrating sensory input with information stored in memory

36

Frontal Lobe

Associated with organizing behavior
One that is responsible for the human ability to plan ahead

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Association Areas

Parts of the brain that lie between the major sensory and motor areas, and that process and integrate input from those areas

38

Cerebral Hemispheres

The two halves of the cortex
Sensory input from one side of the body goes to the opposite hemisphere of the brain

39

Corpus Callosum

A dense tract of nerve fibers that enable the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate

40

Neurogenesis

The proliferation of neurons through cell division

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Event-Related Potentials

ERPs
Changes in the brain's electrical activity that occur in response to the presentation of a particular stimulus

42

Spines

Formations on the dendrites of neurons that increase the dendrites' capacity to form connections with other neurons

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Myelination

The formation of myelin around the axons of neurons that speeds and increases information-processing abilities

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Synaptogenesis

The process by which neurons form synapses with other neurons, resulting in trillions of connections

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Synaptic Pruning

The normal developmental process through which synapses that are rarely activated are eliminated

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Plasticity

The capacity of the brain to be affected by experience

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Experience-Expectant Plasticity

The process through which the normal wiring of the brain occurs in part as a result of experiences that every human who inhabits any reasonably normal environment will have

48

Experience-Dependent Plasticity

The process through which neural connections are created and reorganized throughout life as a function of an individual's experiences

49

What is the basic unit of the brain's informational system?

Neurons

50

How do neurons transmit information?

Electrical signals

51

What is the cortex involved in?

A wide variety of higher mental functions

52

What are some processes that are involved in brain development? (4)

Neurogenesis
Differentiation of neurons
Synaptogenesis
Synaptic pruning

53

What does plasticity help with?

Making it possible for the brain to be able to rewire itself in response to damage, in certain circumstances
Makes the developing brain vulnerable to the absence of stimulation at sensitive periods in development

54

The ability of the brain to recover from injury depends on what?

Someone's age