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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (43):
1

Epigenesis

The emergence of new structures and functions in the course of development

2

Gametes

Reproductive cells (egg and sperm) that contain only half the genetic material of all the other cells in the body

3

Meiosis

Cell division that produces gametes

4

Conception

The union of an egg from the mother and a sperm from the father

5

Phylogenetic Continuity

The idea that because of our common evolutionary history, humans share many characteristics, behaviors, and developmental processes with other animals, especially mammals

6

Apoptosis

Genetically programmed cell death

7

Identical Twins

Twins that result from the splitting in half of the zygote, resulting in each of the two resulting zygotes having exactly the same set of genes

8

Fraternal Twins

Twins that result when two eggs happen to be released into the fallopian tube at the same time and are fertilized by two different sperm
Have only half their genes in common

9

Neural Tube

A groove formed in the top layer of differentiated cells in the embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord

10

Amniotic Sac

A transparent, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus

11

Placenta

A support organ for the fetus

12

What does the placenta do?

Keeps the circulatory systems of the fetus and mother separate, but as a semipermeable membrane, it permits the exchange of some materials between them

13

What materials are exchanged to/from fetus and mother?

Oxygen and nutrients from the mother to fetus
Carbon dioxide and waste products from fetus to mother

14

Umbilical Cord

A tube containing the blood vessels connecting the fetus and placenta

15

Cephalocaudal Development

The pattern of growth in which areas near the head develop earlier than areas farther from the head

16

Habituation

Simple form of learning that involves a decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation

17

Teratogen

An external agent that can cause damage or death during prenatal development

18

Sensitive Period

The period of time during which a developing organism is most sensitive to the effects of external factors
When the fetus is maximally sensitive to the harmful effects of teratogens

19

Dose-Response Relation

A relation in which the effect of exposure to an element increases with the extent of exposure
Prenatally, the more exposure a fetus has to a potential teratogen, the more severe its effect is likely to be

20

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

SIDS
The sudden, unexpected death of an infant less than 1 year of age that has no identifiable cause

21

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

FASD
The harmful effects of maternal alcohol consumption on a developing fetus include facial deformities, mental retardation, attention problems, hyperactivity, and more

22

Fetal Alcohol Effects

FAE
A term used for individuals who show some, but not all, of the standard effects of FAS

23

Colic

Excessive, inconsolable crying by a young infant for no apparent reason

24

Infant Mortality

Death during the first year after birth

25

Low Birth Weight

LBW
A birthweight of less than 5.5 pounds

26

Premature

Any child born at 35 weeks after conception of earlier

27

Small for Gestational Age

Babies who weigh substantially less than is normal for whatever their gestational age

28

Developmental Resilience

Successful development in spite of multiple and seemingly overwhelming developmental hazards

29

What is much of development generated by?

The fetus itself

30

When does prenatal development begin?

Cellular level at conception

31

Where does the zygote multiply and divide?

A fallopian tube

32

What does a zygote go through? (4)

Cell division
Cell migration
Cell differentiation
Cell Death

33

What is a zygote called once it implants on the uterine wall?

Embryo

34

When does fetal behavior begin?

5 to 6 weeks after conception

35

What is the first type of fetal behavior that occurs after conception?

Simple movements that increasingly become more complex and organized patterns

36

What is the second type of fetal behavior that occurs after conception?

Vital to independent living like swallowing and a form of intrauterine breathing

37

What can the fetus in the womb do?

Discriminate between familiar and novel sounds, especially in speech
Exhibit taste preference

38

What is the most common fate of a fertilized egg?

Miscarriage

39

What environmental factors can be hazardous to prenatal development?

Teratogens from external world
Certain maternal characteristics

40

What maternal characteristics can be hazardous to prenatal development?

Age
Nutritional status
Physical health
Behavior
Emotional state

41

What helps initiate the birth process?

Behavior of the fetus

42

Where is infant mortality rate the highest?

US low SES patients

43

Multiple-Risk Model

Infants with a number of risk factors have a heightened likelihood or continued developmental problems