Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (43):
The emergence of new structures and functions in the course of development
Reproductive cells (egg and sperm) that contain only half the genetic material of all the other cells in the body
Cell division that produces gametes
The union of an egg from the mother and a sperm from the father
The idea that because of our common evolutionary history, humans share many characteristics, behaviors, and developmental processes with other animals, especially mammals
Genetically programmed cell death
Twins that result from the splitting in half of the zygote, resulting in each of the two resulting zygotes having exactly the same set of genes
Twins that result when two eggs happen to be released into the fallopian tube at the same time and are fertilized by two different sperm
Have only half their genes in common
A groove formed in the top layer of differentiated cells in the embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord
A transparent, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus
A support organ for the fetus
What does the placenta do?
Keeps the circulatory systems of the fetus and mother separate, but as a semipermeable membrane, it permits the exchange of some materials between them
What materials are exchanged to/from fetus and mother?
Oxygen and nutrients from the mother to fetus
Carbon dioxide and waste products from fetus to mother
A tube containing the blood vessels connecting the fetus and placenta
The pattern of growth in which areas near the head develop earlier than areas farther from the head
Simple form of learning that involves a decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation
An external agent that can cause damage or death during prenatal development
The period of time during which a developing organism is most sensitive to the effects of external factors
When the fetus is maximally sensitive to the harmful effects of teratogens
A relation in which the effect of exposure to an element increases with the extent of exposure
Prenatally, the more exposure a fetus has to a potential teratogen, the more severe its effect is likely to be
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
The sudden, unexpected death of an infant less than 1 year of age that has no identifiable cause
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
The harmful effects of maternal alcohol consumption on a developing fetus include facial deformities, mental retardation, attention problems, hyperactivity, and more
Fetal Alcohol Effects
A term used for individuals who show some, but not all, of the standard effects of FAS
Excessive, inconsolable crying by a young infant for no apparent reason
Death during the first year after birth
Low Birth Weight
A birthweight of less than 5.5 pounds
Any child born at 35 weeks after conception of earlier
Small for Gestational Age
Babies who weigh substantially less than is normal for whatever their gestational age
Successful development in spite of multiple and seemingly overwhelming developmental hazards
What is much of development generated by?
The fetus itself
When does prenatal development begin?
Cellular level at conception
Where does the zygote multiply and divide?
A fallopian tube
What does a zygote go through? (4)
What is a zygote called once it implants on the uterine wall?
When does fetal behavior begin?
5 to 6 weeks after conception
What is the first type of fetal behavior that occurs after conception?
Simple movements that increasingly become more complex and organized patterns
What is the second type of fetal behavior that occurs after conception?
Vital to independent living like swallowing and a form of intrauterine breathing
What can the fetus in the womb do?
Discriminate between familiar and novel sounds, especially in speech
Exhibit taste preference
What is the most common fate of a fertilized egg?
What environmental factors can be hazardous to prenatal development?
Teratogens from external world
Certain maternal characteristics
What maternal characteristics can be hazardous to prenatal development?
What helps initiate the birth process?
Behavior of the fetus
Where is infant mortality rate the highest?
US low SES patients