Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

General Biology I E1 > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (23)
Loading flashcards...
1

Biology

scientific study of life
-living things and systems
-multidisciplinary science
-organized discipline

2

Living things are

-highly ordered/organized
on a structured-hierarchical levels
-use energy to create order

3

The study of life

extends from the microscopic scale of molecules and cells to the global scale of the entire living planet

4

The hierarchy of life

Extends through many levels of biological organization and ranges from large and complex (ecosystem) to small and complex (cell)

5

Biosphere

very large and complex thing (planet, water, all living and non-living things)

6

Ecosystesms

combo of living and nonliving things living in community (close proximity) to one another

7

Communities

living things interacting with other living things

8

Population

more specific organizations

9

Viruses

not living

10

Hierarchy of life

biosphere -> ecosystems -> communities -> populations -> organisms -> organs/organ systems -> tissues -> cells -> organelles -> molecules (-> atoms)

11

Dynamics of an ecosystem

1) Cycling of nutrients
in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil

2) Flow of energy
from sunlight to producers and then to consumers
(starts with the sun)
sunlight -> chemical energy -> stored -> another organism eat plant
-sunlight excites e- in plant, generating energy
-plants can also make macromolecules are high e-(fat, protein, sugar)

12

Cell

- simplest living thing
- lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life
- can duplicate genetic material (reproduction)
- all enclosed by a membrane
- all use DNA as genetic information

13

Cell Heritable information

Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes,
-which program the cells' production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring

14

DNA heredity

- substance of heredity
- most of what we see are protein
-How is DNA converted into protein?

15

Biological Systems

-more than the sum of their parts
-complicated

four key ingredients of life:
sugar, protein, DNA (nucleotide), fat

16

System

a combination of components that form a more complex organization

17

Due to increasing complexity

new properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order

18

Reductionism

involves reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
-"take things apart"

19

virus

nonliving thing
-cannot reproduce on its own
-don't do metabolism

20

features of "life"

1) Highly Ordered
2) Adaptation - change/modify behavior
3) Responding to environment
4) Reproduction
5) Regulation (i.e. blood flow)
6) Energy/Metabolism
7) Grow and Development

21

The study of DNA structure is an example of reductionism that has led to further study of ...

heredity,
- such as the Human Genome Project
- DNA code for humans, have about 25-30 thousand genes

22

3 domains (claids) that life is classified into

1) bacteria
2) archaea
3) eukarya

23

Humans are a part of which domain?

eukarya
cell have a nucleus