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1

life is based on

Water and Carbon

2

Carbon

- all living organisms are made up of chemical based element
"backbone"

3

Organic Chemistry

study of carbon compounds that range from simple molecules to colossal ones
- i.e. glucose is a simple one

4

Carbon structure

- has 6 elections and 4 valence elections that allow it to form 4 covalent bonds with a variety of atoms
- "tetravalent" nature allows it to form large complex molecules with a 3D tetrahedral shape
- can form single and double bonds

5

Bonding versatility of C

allows it to form many diverse molecules, including C skeletons, long chains, or ring structures (in aqueous environments)

6

the electron configuration of C gives it

covalent compatibility with many different elements

7

Carbon Chains

- form the skeletons of most organic molecules including DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and some lipids
- vary in length and shape and may include double bonds and allow for chain branching

8

Urea

- mostly produced by the liver and kidneys
- purpose: byproduct of protein metabolism and breakdown
- found in urine
- contain N

9

Hydrocarbons

organic molecules consisting of only C and H atoms
- found in many of a cell's organic molecules
- i.e. fatty acid chain

10

Non polar hydrocarbon

i.e. petroleum and fats
- cannot dissolve in water

11

Fats

high energy
more CH, more ATP that can be produced

12

Isomers

- molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
i.e. D-Mannose, D-Glucose, D-Galactose

- variations in the structure or architecture of organic molecules

- molecules/compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and chemical properties

13

3 types of isomers

1) Structural
2) Geometric
3) Enantiomers

14

Structural Isomers

differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms

i.e. butane and isobutane C4H10 (straight vs. branched)

15

Geometric Isomers

differ in their spatial arrangements
- different location of individual atoms

i.e. cis- and trans-

16

Enantiomers

mirror images
-different "handedness"
"reflection"

-possible when 4 different atoms are bonded to a C
-there are left and right- handed versions
-usually only one version is "active" or specific for its targets

17

Parkinson's disease

- neurological disease
- Lewy bodies: like a plaque in neurons --> leads to cell death
- caused by cell death of substrate nigra which makes dopamine
- L-Dopa (Leva-dopa) (effective against PD) and D-dopa (biologically inactive)

18

Functional Groups

- chemically reactive groups of atoms within an organic molecule
- are involved in chemical reactions and give organic molecules distinctive chemical properties
- provide molecular and physiological specificity

can modify structure --> modify function

i.e. estradiol (OH) and testosterone (CH3) and double bonds

19

7 functional groups

1) Hydroxyl
2) Carbonyl
3) Carboxyl
4) Amino
5) Sulfhydryl
6) Phosphate
7) Methyl

20

Hydroxyl

OH,
- alcohols
- polar, great solvent
- key sites of chemical bond formation
i.e. ethanol

21

Carbonyl

C=O
- can be ketones or aldehydes
- provide structural and functional properties for sugars, source of energy

22

Ketones

carbonyl group is within a C skeleton
i.e. fructose, acetone
R - (C=O) - R

23

Aldehydes

carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
CHO or HC=O
i.e. propanal

24

Carboxyl (Carboxylic Acid)

COOH
- combination of a hydroxyl and a carbonyl
- acidic properties
i.e. acetic acid

25

Amino

NH2
- acts as a base
- part of amino acid
- part of proteins
i.e. glycine

26

Sulfhydryl

SH
stabilizes protein structure

27

Phosphate

PO4^2-
- is negatively charged
- found in many important molecules
- great source of energy
- important role in attaching/detaching phosphates

28

Methyl

CH3

29

amino acid

contains both carboxyl and amino groups
-Glycine is the simplest of the 20 amino acids

30

Kinase

enzyme (catalyst) that transfers phosphates from substrate --> phospho- product

i.e. phosphates on lysozyme
active (C shape) --> inactive (flat)