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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (46)
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1

How many times is water mentioned in the Bible?

about 620 (NIV)

2

Pslam 18:16

"He (the Lord) reached down from on high and took hold of me; he drew me out of deep water."

3

Water

-biological medium here on Earth
- all living organisms require water more than any other substance
- 3/4 of the Earth's surface is submerged in water

4

The abundance of water

main reason the Earth is habitable

5

John 7:37-38

"Jesus said, 'If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink. Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will flow from within him.'"

6

Water as a polar molecule

- from electronegativities
- formed from hydrogen bonds with each other
- contributes to the various properties water exhibits

7

4 emergent properties of water that contribute to the Earth's fitness for life

1) Cohesion
2) Temperature moderation
3) Insulation (expansion upon freezing)
4) Solvent of life (dissolves things well)

8

Cohesion

the bonding of a high percentage of water molecules to neighboring molecules and is due to hydrogen bonding

-helps the transport of water against gravity in plants by pulling water through their vessels

9

Adhesion

an attraction between different substances

-i.e. between water and plant cell walls

10

Surface Tension

a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid and is related to cohesion

- can be moved and pulled

11

Water moderates air temp

- by adsorbing heat from air that is warmer and releasing the stored heat to air that is cooler

- water can absorb or release a large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature

12

Temperature

the measure of the intensity of heat

13

Kinetic Energy

the energy of motion

14

Heat

a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion

15

Specific Heat

of a substance is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1^C

16

Specific heat of water

1 cal / g / ^C = amount of E to change temp

has a high specific heat, which allows it to minimize temperature fluctuations to within limits that permit life

17

Heat is absorbed when

hydrogen bonds break

18

Heat is released when

hydrogen bonds form

19

Evaporation

the transformation of a substance from a liquid to a gas

20

Heat of vaporization

the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from a liquid to a gas

21

Evaporative cooling of water helps ...

stabilize temperatures in organisms and bodies of water

22

Ice (solid water)

- less dense than liquid water and floats in liquid water
- it is more "ordered"
- becomes more rigid and forms a lattice

23

Water's greatest density is at

4 degrees Celsius

24

Solvent of Life
(universal solvent)

Water

25

solution

a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of substances and a solvent is the dissolving agent of a solution

26

Water is a versatile solvent due to its...

polarity
- can form aqueous solutions
- the different regions of the polar water molecule can interact with ionic compounds called solutes and dissolve them

27

solutes

ionic compounds

28

Hydration shell

when an ionic compound is dissolved in water, each ion surrounded by a sphere of water molecules called a ...
- can surround large/ complex molecules and break them down

29

Water can interact with proteins, polar molecules, if they have...

ionic and polar regions

- water is required for many physiological, cellular, biochemical, and life processes

30

aqueous solutions

water based solutions