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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (29)
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1

set of instructions stored in memory that a comp follows to perform a task; aka software

program

2

essential to comp; can't do anything without it

software

3

performing tasks given by program

running/executing the program

4

performs mathematical operations

arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)

5

when CPU's control unit fetches, from main memory, the next instruction in sequence of prgm instructions

fetch

6

when instruction is encoded into a form of a #, the control unit ___ the instruction and generates an electronic signal

decode

7

when electrical signal is routed to appropriate component of a comp (ALU, disk drive, etc), causes component to perform an operation

execute

8

computer's work area, where comp stores a program while prgrm is running as well as data prgm is working w/; only used for temporary storage while program is running; volatile; contents erased when comp turned off

random-access memory (RAM)

9

tiny storage location; con hold a letter or small #; composed of 8 smaller units

byte

10

tiny electrical components that hold either a (+)/on or (-)/off charge

bit

11

unique number assigned to a byte; ordered from lowest to highest

address

12

device that collects info and sends it to comp

input device

13

device to which info is sent, formats and presents info

output device

14

info comp collects from outside world

input

15

info comp sends to outside world

output

16

prgrms that control and manage basic operations of a comp; includes operating systems, utility programs, and software devment tools

system software

17

most fundamental set of prgms on comp; controls internal operations of comp's hardware, manages all devices connected to comp; allows data to be sent and retrieved, and allows prgms to run on comp

operating systems

18

prgrms that make comp useful for everyday tasks

application software

19

instructions for a program; set of well-defined steps for performing task or solving prblm

algorithm

20

uses binary numbers vs uses words

machine lang vs human lang

21

written on one type of comp and can run on many other types of systems only after a simple recompilation

portability

22

what C++ is written in

text editor

23

statements written by prgmr and file statements are saved in

source code and source file

24

process source code goes through

source code -> preprocessor -> modified source code -> compiler -> object code -> linker -> executable code

25

prgrm that reads source code; searches for #symbol/____ directives; modifies source code

preprocessor

26

goes thru preprocessed code, translating each instruction into appropriate machine lang instruction; uncovers syntax errors

compiler

27

combines object file with necessary run-time library routines

linker

28

named storage location in comp's memory for holding a piece of info; info may change while prgm is running; symbolic names that rep locations in com's RAM

variable

29

3 step process of comp prgms

1) gathering input 2) performing some process on that info 3) producing output