Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (61)
Who is doing the thinking?
ancient Greek laid the foundation for cognition with the gods like Zeus, Poseidon, and Cupid. The Illiad characters didn't think, the Gods thought for them.
What are we perceiving (Descartes)?
Descartes, a French philosopher, said there are 0 steps between the world and perception.
Then he moves to 2 steps, "Idola" hits your retina and that is your perception.
Why are we so good at perceiving some things?
features and configure hypotheses attempt to explain this phenomenon.
we recognize faces by their features (nose, ears, mouth, and eyes).
the arrangement of features, or the way features are configured.
holes cut in heads was meant to receive psychological suffering.
Ancient Egyptians 2500 BC
thought is in the heart, but judgment is in the head or kidney.
The Bicameral Mind 1200 BC
"I told my heart. My heart told me." Homer's Illiad.
Aristotle's Psyche 384-322 BC
Just as the body executes physical action, the psyche executes mental actions. Emotional changes can be felt in the heart.
Galen 129-199 AD
Seat of the mind is in the brain. Found out by being the physician for the Roman gladiators. He had access to virtually unlimited data.
Psychology was born and accepted as an experimental study. In Leipzig, Germany, Wilhelm Wundt started the first modern psychology laboratory where he focused on understanding the nature of consciousness.
philosophy of mind and physiology.
Two early philosophies of the mind
Rationalist and empiricist.
mind acquires knowledge through reason. Renee Descartes (1596-1650) proposed dualism of mind and body, and the existence of the immortal mind.
A solo structure in the brain thought to be where the soul enters the body to control it.
Empiricist philosophy (2 ideas)
relied on EMPIRICISM, the mind acquires knowledge through data. The Tabula Rasa (blank slate) was though of. ASSOCIATION, proposed by John Locke, said that knowledge is elemental, said that ideas can be combined like "mental chemistry" into an association of ideas.
Marie Jean Pierre Flourens
founder of experimental brain science, who said that the brain has four major functional divisions: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the brain stem, and the spine.
Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880)
Patient "tan", who suffered of epilepsy, could not say anything other than "tan." He stayed in the hospital for many years, became paralyzed, and then developed gangrene, which caused Paul Broca to come in and inspect his brain, which had a lesion on Broca's area.
Why was Galen's textbook so popular for 1500 years?
he had access to the collection of medical data.
said that knowledge was elemental and you could break it down like you could a physical matter into its component parts.
Discovery of Localization
some functions correspond to a specific part of the cerebrum. This was controversial. People asked did all areas work alone or did they collaborate somehow?
speech, memory, hearing.
emotion, executive processing
attention, spatial awareness of our body in the world.
fissure down the middle of the brain.
ridges on the brain.
Primary motor cortex
neurons that control the movement of the body.
Robert Whytt 1751
discovered the spinal chord is sufficient for movement to occur.