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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (19):
1

Def. : The modern process of scientific inquiry, leading to the acquisition of new knowledge or the correction and integration of old knowledge, based on observation, prediction and experimentation

Scientific Method

2

Def. : A proposed explanation for a phenomenon or of an observation, usually based on available evidence and previous observation, that generates testable predictions

Hypothesis

3

Def. : A statement of what will happen, assuming that the hypothesis is correct

Prediction

4

Def. : An experimental variable whose change is independent of the experiment, whose change you control

Independent variable

5

def.:An experimental variable whose change depends on the experiment, whose change you don’t control

Dependent variable

6

def. : Any independent variable that you hold constant rather than change, so as to assess the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable

Control variable

7

def. : information that we collect from a primary source, like using our senses or measuring equipment, as opposed to information collected by someone else

Observation

8

def. : Information that we collect with the intention of representing graphically or visually

Data

9

def. : The act of drawing a conclusion based on evidence known or assumed to be true, that allows for indirect understanding

Inference

10

def. Any aspect of experimental design or equipment that negatively affects results, over which you have no control

sources of error

11

What is the difference between mistakes and sources of error?

A mistake is avoidable and sources of error can just be reduced

12

def. : An explanation of some aspect of the natural world, developed through the scientific method, based on rigorous observation and experimentation

scientific theory

13

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

hypothesis= proposed explanation
theory= accepted explanation

14

def. : A visual aide that represents or simulates something that is difficult or impossible to observe directly, based on current scientific theory

Scientific model

15

def. : A summary of experimental evidence, stating that the outcome will always be the same under set conditions, but without offering a mechanism for or an explanation of a phenomena

Scientific law

16

What are some similarities between scientific law and theories?

-both are based on experimental results and observations
-both make predictions that can be tested

17

What are some differences between scientific laws and theories?

-A theory explains why something happens, while a law simply
states that it will
-• If a theory’s prediction is false, we modify the theory
• If a law’s prediction is false, we discard the law

18

def. : A way of representing numbers in exponential form, that are too big or too small to conveniently write in decimal form

Scientific notation

19

def. : A single straight line that best fits the graphed data

best-fit line