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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (51):
1

Two non-metals combine to form what?

a covalent compund

2

A metal and a non-metal combine to make what?

a binary salt

3

a metal oxide and a non-metal oxide combine to form what?

ternary salt

4

A metal oxide and water combine to create what?

a base

5

A non-metal oxide and water combine to form what?

an acid

6

def. A rapid and exothermic reaction between oxygen and a fuel, producing carbon dioxide
and water, along with other oxides, depending on the composition of the fuel

Combustion

7

def. Describes a process that absorbs energy from the surroundings, most commonly in the
form of heat and/or light

endothermic

8

def. A single compound breaks apart, or decomposes, into two or more chemical species

Decomposition

9

def. The minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction

Activation energy

10

def. Describes a process that releases energy to the surroundings, most commonly in the
form of heat and/or light

exothermic

11

Forming chemical bonds _________ energy to the surroundings

releases

12

Breaking chemical bonds ________ energy

absorbs

13

def. Two or more chemical species combine to form a single compound

Synthesis

14

def. A reaction between a compound and an element in which the element replaces an
element of the same type in the compound, creating a different compound and a different element

Single Replacement

15

def. A ranking of elements according to their reactivities, from most to least reactive

Activity Series

16

The more reactive an element is the ______ likely it is to form a compound

more

17

def. A reaction between two compounds that trade cations (or trade anions) between them

Double Replacement

18

what are three types of double replacement reactions?

- precipitation
- neutralization
- gas formation

19

def. A double replacement reaction between two soluble salts, forming two new salts, one
of which is insoluble, creating a precipitate

Precipitation

20

def. An exothermic double replacement reaction between an acid and a base that always
produces a salt and water

Neutralization

21

AB(aq) + CD(aq) becomes AD(aq) + CB(s)

preciptation

22

HX(aq) + MOH(aq) becomes MX(aq) + H2O(l) + heat

neutralization

23

def. An exothermic double replacement reaction between an acid and a base that always
produces a salt and water

Neutralization

24

def. A double replacement reaction that forms an unstable product which spontaneously
decomposes to a gas and water

Gas formation

25

in a _________ : reaction product spontaneously decomposes
to a gas and water, creating three products

gas formation

26

acid + base becomes salt + water

neutralization

27

in a ________ :one product is soluble, other is an insoluble
precipitate

precipitatiion

28

in a _____ : Fuel + oxygen becomes carbon dioxide + water

combustion

29

when does a single replacement occur?

Replacement only occurs if the incoming element is more reactive than
the element it will replace in the compound

30

def. A diagram showing how potential energy changes from reactants to products, allowing you to better understand the characteristics of a given reaction

Potential energy diagram

31

What does enthalpy describe?

the total internal energy in a system

32

Can you measure the total energy of a system?

No

33

def. a measure of how much energy a chemical process converts between heat and potential energy

change in enthalpy (ΔH)

34

What's the formula for change in enthalpy?

ΔH = Hproducts–Hreact

35

A negative change in enthalpy signifies what kind of system?

Exothermic

36

A positive change in enthalpy signifies what kind of system?

endothermic

37

def. Forces that exist between individual molecules, either attracting them together, or repelling them apart

Intermolecular forces

38

Changes in __________ forces produce changes in physical form, like changes of state and dissolution, as particles move further apart or closer together

intermolecular

39

def. Attractive forces that exist within a molecule or compound, holding the atoms together (Really just a broader, more general term for chemical bond)

Intramolecular forces

40

Changes in ________ forces produce chemical changes, as existing bonds break and new bonds form, resulting in new and different products

Intramolecular

41

def. One way to measure the strength of a chemical bond, representing the amount of energy released when a bond forms and the amount needed to break it (The higher the bond energy, the stronger the bond)

Bond Energy

42

Once started ________ reactions are self-sustaining , as some of the energy they release provides the energy required for more reactant to reach the activation energy?

Exothermic

43

___________ reactions never have enough energy to reach activation energy on their own, and therefore require a constant input of energy to both start them and maintain their progress

Endothermic

44

def. Any reaction that starts automatically upon mixing the reactants, without the need to add any additional energy to reach activation energy

Spontaneous reaction

45

What two things influence reaction rate?

Catalysts and temperature

46

Both catalysts and an increase in temperature make it _______ for the reactants to reach activation energy, making the reaction easier and the rate ________

easier, faster

47

def. A balanced chemical equation that includes energy as if it were a reactant or a product

Thermochemical equation

48

In an endothermic reaction, energy acts like _____

a reactant

49

in an exothermic reaction, energy acts like a _______

product

50

change in enthalpy is an ________ property

extensive

51

def. An expression of the change in enthalpy alongside, but separate from, a chemical reaction (Uses a positive or negative sign to show energy going in or coming out)

ΔH notation