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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (31)
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1

Argument

A group of statements, one or more of which (premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (conclusion)

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Premises

the statements that set forth reasons or evidence.

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Statement

A sentence that is either true or false

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Truth

Truth is a property of language known as "Correspondance".

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Deductive argument

One designed such that the truth of the premises necessitates the truth of the conclusion.

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Inductive argument

One designed such that if the premises are true, the conclusion is probably true but not necessarily.

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Valid deductive argument

A deductive argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.

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Invalid deductive argument

A deductive argument in which it IS possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.

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Strong inductive argument

An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true

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Weak inductive argument

An inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises

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Sound Argument

A valid deductive argument with true premises.

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Unsound Argument

A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.

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Cogent Argument

A strong inductive argument with true premises.

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The Counterexample Method

A method for proving invalidity. It consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and a false conclusion.

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syllogistic logic

A kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument.

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Modal Logic

A kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief , and doubt.

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Simple Noninferential Passages

- Warnings
- Pieces of advice
- Statements of belief or opinion
- Loosely associated statements
- A report

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Expository Passages

A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.

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Explanations

An expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.

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Explanandum

The statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained.
"the thing youre trying to explain"

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Explanans

The statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining.
The explanation.

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Definiens

language used to define.

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Definiendum

word to be defined.

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Inference

The reasoning process expressed by an argument

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Proposition

The meaning or information content of a statement

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Sufficient condition

If we say that "x is a sufficient condition for y," then we mean that if we have x, we know that y must follow. In other words, x guarantees y.

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Necessary condition

If we say that "x is a necessary condition for y," we mean that if we don't have x, then we won't have y. Or put differently, without x, you won't have y. To say that x is a necessary condition for y does not mean that x guarantees y.

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Categorical syllogism

a syllogism in which each statement begins with one of the words "all," "no," or "some"

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Hypothetical syllogism

a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises

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Uncogent Argument

an inductive argument that is weak, has one or more false premises, fails to meet the total evidence requirement, or any combination of the these