Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (31)
A group of statements, one or more of which (premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (conclusion)
the statements that set forth reasons or evidence.
A sentence that is either true or false
Truth is a property of language known as "Correspondance".
One designed such that the truth of the premises necessitates the truth of the conclusion.
One designed such that if the premises are true, the conclusion is probably true but not necessarily.
Valid deductive argument
A deductive argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
Invalid deductive argument
A deductive argument in which it IS possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
Strong inductive argument
An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true
Weak inductive argument
An inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises
A valid deductive argument with true premises.
A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.
A strong inductive argument with true premises.
The Counterexample Method
A method for proving invalidity. It consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and a false conclusion.
A kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument.
A kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief , and doubt.
Simple Noninferential Passages
- Pieces of advice
- Statements of belief or opinion
- Loosely associated statements
- A report
A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.
An expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.
The statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained.
"the thing youre trying to explain"
The statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining.
language used to define.
word to be defined.
The reasoning process expressed by an argument
The meaning or information content of a statement
If we say that "x is a sufficient condition for y," then we mean that if we have x, we know that y must follow. In other words, x guarantees y.
If we say that "x is a necessary condition for y," we mean that if we don't have x, then we won't have y. Or put differently, without x, you won't have y. To say that x is a necessary condition for y does not mean that x guarantees y.
a syllogism in which each statement begins with one of the words "all," "no," or "some"
a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises