Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (31)

Loading flashcards...

1

## Argument

### A group of statements, one or more of which (premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (conclusion)

2

## Premises

### the statements that set forth reasons or evidence.

3

## Statement

### A sentence that is either true or false

4

## Truth

### Truth is a property of language known as "Correspondance".

5

## Deductive argument

### One designed such that the truth of the premises necessitates the truth of the conclusion.

6

## Inductive argument

### One designed such that if the premises are true, the conclusion is probably true but not necessarily.

7

## Valid deductive argument

### A deductive argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.

8

## Invalid deductive argument

### A deductive argument in which it IS possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.

9

## Strong inductive argument

### An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true

10

## Weak inductive argument

### An inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises

11

## Sound Argument

### A valid deductive argument with true premises.

12

## Unsound Argument

### A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.

13

## Cogent Argument

### A strong inductive argument with true premises.

14

## The Counterexample Method

### A method for proving invalidity. It consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and a false conclusion.

15

## syllogistic logic

### A kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument.

16

## Modal Logic

### A kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief , and doubt.

17

## Simple Noninferential Passages

###
- Warnings

- Pieces of advice

- Statements of belief or opinion

- Loosely associated statements

- A report

18

## Expository Passages

### A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.

19

## Explanations

### An expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.

20

## Explanandum

###
The statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained.

"the thing youre trying to explain"

21

## Explanans

###
The statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining.

The explanation.

22

## Definiens

### language used to define.

23

## Definiendum

### word to be defined.

24

## Inference

### The reasoning process expressed by an argument

25

## Proposition

### The meaning or information content of a statement

26

## Sufficient condition

### If we say that "x is a sufficient condition for y," then we mean that if we have x, we know that y must follow. In other words, x guarantees y.

27

## Necessary condition

### If we say that "x is a necessary condition for y," we mean that if we don't have x, then we won't have y. Or put differently, without x, you won't have y. To say that x is a necessary condition for y does not mean that x guarantees y.

28

## Categorical syllogism

### a syllogism in which each statement begins with one of the words "all," "no," or "some"

29

## Hypothetical syllogism

### a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises

30