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A Concise Introduction to Logic > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (19)
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1

Cognitive meanings

Terms that convey information.

2

Emotive meaning

Terminology that expresses or evokes feelings.

3

A value claim

Claim that something is good, bad, right, wrong, better, worse, more important, or less important than some other thing.

4

An Ambiguous expression

one that can be interpreted as having more than one clearly distinct meaning in a given context.

5

Intensional meaning

the qualities, properties, characteristics or attributes that the term "connotes".

6

Extensional meaning

consists of the members of the class that the term denotes.
A collection of objects to which that term applies.

7

Stipulative Definitions

Assigns meaning to a word for the first time. It is the adaptation of language.

8

Lexical Definitions

A definition used to report the meaning that a word already has in a language. It is the standard definition of a word.

9

Criteria for a Lexical Definition

- should conform to the standards of proper grammar
- convey the essential meaning of the word being defined
- Should be neither too broad or too narrow
- Should avoid circularity
- Should not be negative when it can be affirmative
- Should avoid affective terminology (emotive language)
- indicate the context to which the definiens pertains.

10

Precising Definitions

Intends to give more precision to an otherwise ambiguous term.

11

Theoretical Definition

Terms defined within the context of a theory, and which its definition is made to fit a theory.

12

Persuasive Definition

Intended to get you to feel a certain way about the term.

13

Demonstrative (Ostensive)

When one is defined through non-verbal reference to an object.

14

Enumerative

Listing of objects in the class of which is to be defined.

15

Subclass

To point off subclasses of a term.

16

Etymological

Defined by the use of other words in a different language.

17

Operational

Defining a term by giving an operation that gives meaning to a word.

18

Genus and Difference

Defining what is the differing factor of the object.

19

Synonymous

listing words with equivalent qualities, properties, characteristics and attributes.