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1

What are the four standard form categorical Propositions?

- All S are P
- No S are P
- Some S are P
- Some S are not P

2

"A" Standard form categorical propositions

All S are P.
Universal Affirmative

3

"E" Standard form categorical propositions

No S are P.
Universal Negative

4

"I" Standard form propositions

Some S are P.
Particular Affirmitive

5

"O" standard form categorical propositions

Some S are not P.
Particular Negative

6

Distribution

An attribute of the terms of a proposition. A term is said to be distributed if the proposition makes an assertion about every member of the class denoted by the term.

7

Distributed terms of categorical propositions

A = S term
E = S and P term
I = no term is dist.
O = P term

8

Contradiction

cannot have the same truth value. If one is true, then the other must be false, and vice versa.
A and O
E and I

9

Contrariety

Contrary propositions cannot both be true at once but can both be false
A and E

10

Subcontrariety

Subcontrariety propositions cannot both be false at once but can both be true
I and O

11

Subalternation

If the subaltern is true, then its subaltern is true. If the subaltern is false, then its subaltern is undetermined
A and I
E and O

12

Subalternation

If the subaltern is true, then its subaltern is undetermined. If the subaltern is false, the its subaltern is false.
I and A
O and E

13

Modern Square of Opposition

The only relationship that matters is contradiction.

14

Conversion

S and P switch
valid for:
E and I
valid for A by limitation

15

Obversion

Quality cahnges, P takes prefix "non". Valid for A, E, O, and I propositions.

16

Contraposition

S and P switch, each taking the prefix "non". Valid for A and O. Valid to E propositions by limitation.

17

Quantifiers

"all," "no," "some," -- words to specify how much of the subject class is included.

18

Existential import

If the truth of the proposition requires a belief in the existence of members of the subject class

19

Copula

"are," "are not," -- they link the subject term with the predicate term

20

Quality of Categorical Proposition

either affirmative or negative depending on whether it affirms or denies class membership

21

Quantity of Categorical Proposition

either universal or particular, depending on whether the statement makes a claim about every member or just some member of the class denoted by the subject term

22

Existential Fallacy

From the Boolean standpoint, a formal fallacy that occurs whenever an argument is invalid merely because the premise lacks existential import