Flashcards in Chapter 1 Definitions Deck (22):

1

## Dependent Variable

###
The property that is measured in the research.

MEASURES THE EFFECT OF THE IV.

2

## Extraneous Variable

### Variable other than the IV that could cause undesirable changes to the DV.

3

## Controlled Variable

### When potential effects of the EV have been removed.

4

## Confounding Variable

###
Variable other than the IV that has a systematic effect on the DV.

RESEARCH IS A WASTE OF TIME IF IT IS PRESENT.

5

## Convenience sample.

### Using any person 'conveniently' available as part of the sample - are essentially biased and unreliable.

6

## Representative Sample

### When the sample represent that population, so that the results/conclusions can be generalised to the wider population.

7

## Random sampling

### Sampling procedure in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

8

## Stratified sampling

### When the effects of a certain variable can be eliminated as a possible confound in an experiment.

9

## Random allocation

### When all participants in an experiment have an equal chance of being in the E/C-group.

10

## Repeated measures

### Each participant is in the E/C-group.

11

## Matched participants

### Attempts to eliminate confounding variables by "matching" participants in E and C-group based on key characteristics.

12

## Independent groups

### Allocates participant to E/C-group randomly.

13

## Order effect

### Type of confounding variable (Eg. Practice, fatigue, boredom etc.).

14

## Placebo effect

### When participants' behavior is influenced by their expectations of how they should behave (caused by a placebo).

15

## Single-bling procedure

### Participants don't know if they are in the E/C-group.

16

## Experimenter effect

### When the outcome of an experiment is unintentionally (or intentionally) affected by the experimenter.

17

## Double-blind procedure

### No one knows who is in E/C-group.

18

## Descriptive statistics

###
Tell us about the "shape" of the data set.

NO CONCLUSIONS CAN BE DRAWN.

19

## Inferential statistics

### Statistical procedures that allow researchers to decide whether changes in the IV have cause changes in the value of the DV.

20

## P-value.

### Probability that the difference in results is due to chance.

21

## List the participants' rights in research

###
Confidentiality

Voluntary participation

Withdrawal rights

Informed consent

Deception

Debriefing

22