Chapter 8 Definitions Flashcards Preview

Psychology Units 3+4 > Chapter 8 Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Definitions Deck (16):
1

Sensory memory

According to the multi-store model of memory, the sensory memory is the store for incoming, fleeting sensory information.

2

Long-term memory

Like the hard-drive in your computer, the information is encoded and stored, and as long as you know enough about the information then it can be retrieved.

3

Memory

The mental capacity for retaining an image, concept or knowledge when the stimuli which created it no longer exists in consciousness. Memory may also refer to the storage system which retains such images/knowledge.

4

Working memory

The mental work that is occurring at any one time, including retrieving information, problem-solving, and comprehending sounds and visions. Working memory draws on information from you sensory and long-term memories.

5

Levels-of-processing

A model of memory storage suggests that memory does not comprise any specific number of separate memory states but instead comprises a continuous dimension in which memory is encoded. It is related to the ease with which it can be retrieved: the deeper the processing of information, the greater the chance it can be retrieved.

6

Encoding

The process of putting information into a form which will allow it to fit in with your personal storage system.

7

Storage

Maintaining encoded information in a memory store.

8

Retrieval

The process of getting information back from long-term memory to be used in working memory.

9

Echoing memory

Auditory memory in the sensory memory register.

10

Iconic memory

A sensory register for the fleeting storage of visual information. It lasts about 0.3 seconds. It explains why we can see a moving picture from a series of still photos.

11

Duration of memory

Amount of time that information remains in either sensory, short-term or long-term memory.

12

Capacity of memory

Amount of information which is stored in either sensory, short-term or long-term memory.

13

Chunking

The process of grouping items together to improve mental capacity - especially of short-term memory, and of committing to long-term memory.

14

Interference

Difficulties in retrieving information from memory, caused by other material learned either previously (pro-active interference) or subsequently (retro-active interference).

15

Maintenance rehearsal

A strategy of keeping information in short-term memory or for moving it into long-term memory by simply repeating information over and over, but not trying to form meaningful connections between the new information and other information which is already in memory.

16

Short-term memory

According to the multi-store model of memory, the short-term memory is a store which receives information from the long-term and sensory stores; it has a limited capacity of 7+-2 pieces of information, and a duration of approximately 12-20 seconds.