Flashcards in Chapter 12 PP Review Deck (27):
Where in the brain is the amygdala located?
On the end of the hippocampus/midbrain.
What type of learning is the amygdala involved in?
- Emotional learning
> What it feels like to be scared in a particular situation (remembering fear responses)
- Classical conditioning sort of learning
What is the role of the hippocampus in learning?
Spatial learning (Eg. Body position, orientation).
Where is the Ventral Tegmental Area located?
What is the role of the VTA in learning?
Learning through reward (when you are given a consequence which can be either positive or negative).
What style of learning is the VTA associated with?
What type of learning are the cerebral cortex and cerebellum associated with?
- Learning through movement
- Learning bodily movements (especially watching others move and copying movements - eg.learning how to shoot a free throw)
List all of the parts of a neuron.
- Axon terminal
- Terminal buttons (Release vesicles which contain neurotransmitters)
- Myelin sheath
- Synapes in between two neurons
How do messages pass from one neuron to another?
- Eletrical impulse moves through axon of pre-synaptic neuron.
- Terminal buttons of the axon terminal release vesicles which contain neurotransmitters.
- Neurotransmitters move across the synapse to the post-synaptic neuron where they enter the neuron through dendrites.
- The electrical impulse is sent to an moves through the post-synaptic neuron and the process occurs again.
The process of moulding or forming new synapses.
What is the most common neurotransmitter involved in learning?
What happens when two neurons are forming a new connection (when learning something new)?
- Glutamate is secreted
- Glutamate stimulates the production and release of dopamine (dopamine sparks structural changes in the neurons)
- Post-synaptic neuron grows 'dendritic spines'
- Pre-synaptic neuron grows axon terminal 'sprouts'
This allows faster and more streamlined neural transmissions
Where an undamaged neuron that has lost a connection with an active neuron may seek a new active neuron and connect with it instead.
Refers to the ability of the brain to change in response to stimulation from the environment.
What are the types of plasticity?
- Developmental plasticity
- Adaptive plasticity
Define developmental plasticity.
The ability of synapses to be modified as an infant or child.
List the stages of developmental plasticity.
- Circuit formation
- Circuit pruning
Explain circuit formation
Explain circuit pruning
A process where the axons of the neurons become covered in myelin.
What are the two purposes of Myelination?
- Speeds up the rate of transmission.
- Protects axons from electrical interference.
Define adaptive plasticity.
Refers to the ability of the brain to compensate for lost function and/or maximise remaining function in the event of brain injury by reorganising its structure.
When does adaptive plasticity happen?
At all ages, but is more efficient in childhood.
Define sensitive period.
A period of time during development when an individual is kore responsive (sensitive) to certain types of environmental experiences or learning.