Flashcards in Chapter 1- Determining Deviance Deck (31):
involves violating the norms that have been accepted in society. Problem with defining deviance. More subjective nowadays.
Deviance Specialists vs. Criminologists
deviance specialists study criminal and non criminal forms of deviance, where as criminologists only study the criminal forms
Objective views of deviance
claim that the presence of certain characteristics define deviance
Subjective views of deviance
claim that there is no shared observable characteristic that can clearly tell us who or what is deviant, and who or what is normal. Instead someone must tell us who is deviant.
definition not often used in academic research, but used in everyday reality. Its hard to define statistical rarity-at what percentage point is something considered rare?
Second factor to the definition of deviance. includes physical harm, emotional harm, social harm (get in the way of the smooth runnings of society), and harm to the way people understand the world and their role in it.
If the responses of society's masses are primarily negative, rather than positive, then the person or act being responded to is deviant.
proposed to be the defining characteristic of deviance
Absolutist view of norms
a particular behavior or characteristic was percieved as being inherently and universally deviant
foundation of morality in a culture, (prohibitions against incest of homosexuality) if violated, might be considered immoral
Consensual view of law
law is perceived as arising out of social consensus and is then equally applied to all, is the only one of the possible views of crime and law
Conflict view of law (social power perspective)
law as a tool used by the ruling class to serve its own interests, and believe that the law is more likely to be applied to members of the powerless classes in society
Interactionist view of law
society's powerful define the law at the behest of interest groups, who appeal to those with power n order to rectify a perceived social ill.
High consensus deviance and low consensus deviance
different levels of support in the broader society
subjectivists say that we cannot recognize deviance when we see it; we have to be taught, through processes of socialization, that a person, behavior, or characteristic is deviant.
perspective proposing that social characteristics are creations or artifacts of a particular society at a specific time in history, just as objects are artifacts of that society; consequently a person behaviour or characteristic that is considered deviant in one society may be considered normal in another
Levels of social construction
from all encompassing to most specific
the world is characterized by endless relativism, there is no essential reality to the social world at all, that if everything and anything is simply looked at in a certain way that is the way it is
types of social constructionism
radical, strict, soft or contextual
the interactions, negotiations, and debates among groups with different perceptions of whether a behavior or characteristic is deviant and needs to be socially controlled, and if so, how
those who manufacture public morality through
1) bringing the problem to public awareness
2) facillitating moral conversion
Groups commonly known to be moral euntrepreneurs
Politicians, Scientists, Religious Institutions, media (central battleground), commercial enterprise,
three component process that changes the way society treats people who are typed or categorized as deviant.
Description (social typing)
a label is placed on an individual based on an observed or presumed behavior or characteristic
Evaluation (social typing)
where judgement is attached to the individual by virtue of the label that was previously attached or the category that individual was placed under the description component
prescription (social typing)
Where processes of social control or regulation emerge, the individual is treated a certain way because of the label and judgement.
men have 4% higher brain mass than women on average
Women attempt suicide 3x as often as men, but men kill themselves 3x as often as women
Women as the weaker sex?
Historically yes, heavy domestic jobs, malnutrition, gynecological issues