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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (18):

Five components of moral panic

heightened concern
hostility towards the offending group
a certain level of consensus that there is a real threat


Youth crime is resulted from...explained in these theories

learning deviant techniques and motives from peers (differential association theory)
bonds with others that restrain most of us from crime (social bonds theory)
level of self control developed early in life (general theory of crime
Structural inequalities in access to legitimate opportunities (merton's strain theory)
illegitimate oppoprutnites (differential opportunity)
system of rewards, punishments, and role models we have been exposed to in life (social learning theory)


Parenting style is greatly related to child delinquency

supervision, parental control, emotional ties between parent and child


Factors influencing youth violent crime

no university aspirations
skipping school
discriminated against on the basis of race, language, or religion
have been stolen from
have been threatened
perceive school as unsafe
negative relationship with father and/or mother
going out at night without adult supervision
spending time with friends rather than with family
peer acceptance of illegal acts


Factors influencing youth property crime

single parent or blended family
no university aspirations
skipping school
perceive school environment as unsafe
have been stolen from
going outa t night without adult supervision
spending time alone rather tha with family
spending time with friends rather than with family
peer acceptance of illegal acts


Family Indicators influencing gang involvement

excessive parental controls
lax parental controls
low parental nurturance
low parental educational level
criminality among other family members


Personal Indicators influencing gang involvement

low self control
low motivation
failing grades
low aspirations or goals in life
substance abuse


Community indicators influencing gang involvement

community disorganization
high crime rates
high population turnover
lack of cultural resources
lack of recreational resources
gang presence


School indicators influencing gang involvement

negative school environment
violence in the school
low expectations for students
inadequate funding for school resources
lax controls over students



evolutionary throwbacks according to Lombroso's theory of crime based on evolution


Positivist Theories

explain why people act in deviant ways
functionalist theories under this category type
learning theories
and theories of social control


Functionalist Theories

Tautological (circular)
Telological (related to goals)

structures in society needed for smooth running of society
Durkheim: Anomie theory (society changes too quickly)
Merton: Strain Theory (social structure places limitation on people's access to mess of achieving society's goals)
Cloward and Ohlin: Differential Opportunity Theory (opportunities to legitimate or illegitimate opportunities)
Agnew: General Strain Theory (when we are unable to achieve goals, or great stress is placed upon us, accompanied with negative emotions)
Cohen: Theory of Status Frustration (middle class measuring rod, inequalities in society reproduced in classroom against low class males)


Merton: strain theory
Adaptations into deviance (social structure places limitations on access to legitimate means of success)

1) conformity: accept society goals and legitimate means of attaining them
2) Innovation: accept society goals, but reject legitimate means of attainment
3) Ritualism: reject society's goals but accept legitimate means
4) Retreatism: reject society's goals and means of attaining them
5) Rebellion: new goals, and new ways of attaining them


Durkheim: Anomie Theory
Industrial revolution; when society changes too quickly people are displaced

anomie means: normallessness
Mechanical solidarity: people bonded by likeness
Organic solidarity: people bonded by difference (division of labour)


Merton: Anomie and Strain Theories

Institutionalized goals: what society idealized goals, not everyone could attain them with legitimate means


Cloward and Ohlin: Differential Opportunity Theory

legitimate opportunities only available to some, people grow up in bad neighbourhoods or families-gangs


Agnew: General Strain Theory

strain can come from other sources than just reaching institutionalized goals, loss of family member, job, negative stimuli. but turned deviant with negative affect


Cohen: Status Frustration
subcultural theory rather than functionalist

aimed at lower class males in school, school system not really good for them, measured against a middle class measuring rod, status frustration similar to strain, mutual conversion with other boys feeling the same, reaction formation with their own goals outside of the school system