Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Evolution & Themes Deck (42):
What are the levels of biological organization?
1. A MOLECULE consists of two or more atoms bound together
2. Each ORGANELLE has an orderly arrangement of molecules
3. CELLS are composed of the functional components organelles (example chloroplasts)
4. A TISSUE consists of an organized group of cells
5. ORGANS & ORGAN SYSTEMS (such as...) are constructed from several tissues
6. An ORGANISM is composed of several types of organs
7. A POPULATION is a set of organisms of the same species
8. A COMMUNITY consists of populations of the various species inhabiting a specific area
9. An ECOSYSTEM consists of a community of living and non living species & factors
10. The BIOSPHERE is made up of all of the Earth's ecosystems
What are the 5 unifying themes?
3. Energy and Matter
Give an example of organization.
Emergent properties - The human heart must be intact in order to function. It's tissues and cells must work together in a structured an organized manner and are not capable of working individually to perform its function.
Give an example of organization and structure function.
The structure of a hummingbird's wings allow it to hover and move backwards so that its long beak can eat sugars from the plant. It's physical structure enhances it's function.
Give an example of information.
A particular combination of genes passes down information from parent to child to determine physical traits such as eye color, hair color, etc.
Give an example of energy and matter.
Photosynthesis. Plants receive energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy or sugars. Animals are then able to eat the plants and gain energy from their sugars to carry out their activities.
Give an example of interactions in ecosystems.
An animal eats food and then deposits some of the materials as waste back into the soil. The chemicals are then recycled back into the environment. A zebra is prey for the lion.
Give an example of interactions in molecules.
When you eat, chemicals signal to the pancreas to release insulin which processes and stores sugar. Chemicals also signal to the brain when the stomach is full to decrease your appetite.
Organisms living on earth are modified descendants of common ancestors.
What are emergent properties?
The arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. Specific organization of parts to perform a function.
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A membrane enclosed cell containing a DNA filled nucleus. Aside from bacteria, this includes all forms of life including plants and animals.
What is a prokaryotic cell?
The cells of two groups of single-celled microorganisms - bacteria and archaea. Lacks nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles.
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Within cells chromosomes contain genetic material in the form of DNA, which is made up of building blocks called nucleotides.
What are nucleotides?
The blueprints for making proteins. ATCG.
What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid. The sequence of nucleotides is translated into mRNA, the protein building blocks called amino acids.
What is gene expression? What is the process? Give an example.
The transfer of information from a gene into a functional protein. The process in which DNA directs synthesis of proteins or RNA. 1) The cell transcribes the information in the sequence of DNA and makes specific RNA molecules called mRNA. 2) The cell translates the information in the mRNA nucleotides to make a specific protein, a series of linked amino acids. 3) The chain of amino acids then performs it's specialized function. *Example - crystalline protein to focus light allowing the eye to see*
What is a genome?
The genetic material of an organism.
What is genomics?
The study of a particular set or group of genes.
What is a proteome?
The entire set of proteins expressed.
What is proteomics?
The study of sets of proteins and their properties.
Discuss the theme Energy and Matter.
Energy flows through an ecosystem entering as light and exiting as heat. Chemicals are cycled between organisms within an ecosystem.
What is the difference between consumers and producers? Give an example of each.
Producers convert light energy into chemical energy (plants). Consumers feed on producers and other consumers (animals, humans, etc.)
Discuss the theme Interactions. What is its importance?
Interactions among organisms help regulate an ecosystem. Interactions among chemicals and cells in the body help organize and regulate different organ systems (also trees and plant life).
What is feedback regulation?
The output or product of a process regulates that very process.
What is negative feedback? Give an example.
Most common type of feedback. A loop in which the response reduces the initial stimulus. Insulin signaling - the uptake of glucose by cells (the response) decreases blood glucose levels, eliminating the stimulus for insulin secretion, therefore shutting off the pathway.
What is positive feedback? Give an example.
An end product speeds up production. Blood clotting - platelets in the blood accumulate and release chemicals that attract more platelets to seal the wound and create a clot.
How is a mailing system analogous to biology's hierarchical taxonomic system?
An address pinpoints a location by tracking from broader to narrower categories. This is the same as the groups - subordinate to - groups structure of taxonomy.
Explain why editing is an appropriate metaphor for how natural selection acts on a populations heritable variation.
The naturally occurring heritable variation in a population is "edited" by natural selection because individuals with heritable traits better suited to the environment survive and reproduce more successfully than others. Over time "better-suited" individuals persist and their percentage in the population increases. Population editing.
Draw a simple branch pattern that symbolizes the relationship of the 3 eukaryotic kingdoms.
Eukaryotic kingdom --> kingdom plantae, kingdom animalia, and kingdom fungi.
What are the 3 domains of life?
Eukaryotic, bacteria, and archaea.
What is the main difference between the plantae, animalia, and fungi kingdoms?
Plantae produce their own energy from light to sugar. Animalia live off of other organisms. Fungi absorb their nutrients from their surroundings.
Sum up Darwin's "descent with modification."
1) individuals within a population vary in heritable traits
2) competition is likely to occur when there are more individuals than the environment can support
3) species adapt according to their environments
Explain natural selection.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits. They adapt to environmental factors over time. Example - polar bears in the Arctic.
What is adaptive radiation?
A period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow them to fill different ecological roles. Example - finches and beak size according to food source.
What is inductive reasoning?
A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations. Example - The sun always rises in the east.
What is deductive reasoning?
A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise. General to specific. Example - If ... Then ...
What is an independent variable?
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the researchers.
What is a dependent variable?
In an experiment, the factor that is measured.
Why is natural selection called a theory? What makes a theory?
Compared to a hypothesis, a scientific theory is usually more general and substantiated by a vast amount of evidence. Natural selection is an idea that applies to all kinds of organisms and is supported by vast amounts of evidence.
What is the difference between qualitative data and quantitative data?
Qualitative data is recorded and expressed in numerical evidence, usually demonstrated on tables and graphs. Quantitative data is expressed in recorded descriptions.
How does science differ from technology?
Science is the pursuit of information and knowledge. Technology is the application of that knowledge toward a specific purpose.