Chapter 1 - History, Theory, and Research Strategies Flashcards Preview

PSYC 3351 Topics in Child Development > Chapter 1 - History, Theory, and Research Strategies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - History, Theory, and Research Strategies Deck (108)
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1

Child development

an area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence

2

Developmental science

an interdisciplinary field which includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan

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Research conducted in child development is _______ and __________

Much of the research being conducted in child development is applied and is interdisciplinary

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Domains of Development

1. Physical: changes in body size, proportions, appearance, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities, and physical health 2. Cognitive: changes in intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and language 3. Emotional and social: changes in emotional communication, self-understanding, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behaviour

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Periods of Development

1. The prenatal period: conception to birth 2. Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to 2 years 3. Early childhood: 2 to 6 years 4. Middle childhood: 6 to 11 years 5. Adolescence: 11 to 18 years 6. Emerging adulthood: 18 to 25 years

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The prenatal period: conception to birth

Most rapid time of development

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Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to 2 years

  • • Dramatic changes in brain and body
    • Emergence of a wide array of motor, perceptual and intellectual capabilities
    • Beginnings of language
    • First intimate ties to others
    • Infancy: year one
    • Toddlerhood: year two
    • Attachment extremely  is important during this stage

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Early childhood: 2 to 6 years

• Body becomes longer and leaner • Motor skills are refined • More self-controlled and self sufficient • Make believe play • Language shows much growth • Morality becomes evident • Ties with peers

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Middle childhood: 6 to 11 years

• • (Apprenticing themselves) across cultures at this age start engaging in activities designed to prepare them for adult life.

• Master responsibilities that resemble adult ones
• Improved athletic ability
• Participation in organized games with rules
• More logical thought prosses
• Better at following rules
• Literacy
• Master at fundamental reading, writing, math
• Advances in understanding of self, morality and friendship

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Adolescence: 11 to 18 years

• Not hard and fast start and end date – start at sexual maturity, ends when you take your full adult place in society
• Physical changes – more adult like
• Sexual maturity
• Change in formal education – more future directed
• Abstract thinking
• Idealistic
• Preparation for adult roles
• Autonomy
• Personal values and goals

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What do Theories do

• provide organizing frameworks for our observations • serve as a basis for practical action

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Theory

an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behaviour

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basic issues in child development

Continuity Versus Discontinuity
One Course of Development Versus Many
Nature Versus Nurture
Active Versus Passive 

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Continuity Versus Discontinuity

• Concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)
• Qualitative v Quantitative changes
• Is the difference entirely new abilities or just amount and complexity of the same abilities?
• Stages or slope of development
• Stability v plasticity– how a trait is the same or changing across development

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Nature Versus Nurture

• Involves the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (nature) and experiential or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are
• Formulas to determine the degree of nature and nurture this are not good because they require them to be separable

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One Course of Development Versus Many

Universal stages or context dependent development

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Resilience Four Factors

The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development 1. Personal characteristics – intelligence, socially valued talents, temperament, emotional control, 2. Parental relationship – warmth, appropriate expectations, monitoring, organized home environment 3. Social support outside family – strong bonds with caring adult, 4. Community resources and opportunities – good schools, available health care, social services, libraries, recreation centers, activities outside of school, community involvement.

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In the medieval times

Childhood was considered a different stage of life and not just little adults. • Children dressed differently from adults. Looser more comftable clothing. • Manuals existed offering advice on child care; health, feeding, clothing, games • Laws recognized that children needed protection from mistreatment • Courts were more lenient with youths than with adults • Contradictory religious depictions existed, portraying children as innocent or as in need of purification

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In the sixteenth century Reformation

The Puritan belief in original sin led to a dominant view of children as evil and stubborn • Children were dressed in stiff clothing to hold them in adult like postures • Children were beaten • Parents had a hard time sticking to extreme puritan practices dew to love and affection

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In the seventeenth century Enlightenment

a period of ‘enlightenment’ brought new views of children and childrearing. Human dignity, respect, more humane treatment. • John Locke - Tabula rasa (blank slate) • Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the noble savage

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John Locke

o Tabula rasa (blank slate) o Parents as rational tutors, carful instruction, good example, and rewards o Apposed physical punishment o Kindness and compassion not harshness o Theories of continuous, nurture, many path, focused development that has high plasticity at later ages. o He saw kids as having little impact on their own development. o Ahead of his time

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

o noble savage – naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong o harmed by adult training o four stages of development – infancy, childhood, late childhood, adolescence o Discontinuity, nature (maturation), one path

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Maturation

A genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

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Toward the turn of the twentieth century Scientific Beginnings

Study of child development rapidly evolved. Improved methods of research and theories. Darwin o theory of recapitulation o contributed to developmental theories G. Stanley Hall o founder of the child-study movement G. Stanley Hall With Arnold Gesell o launched the normative approach Binet and Simon o the first successful intelligence test

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Darwin

• Darwin noted that early prenatal growth is strikingly similar in many species • Others form theory of recapitulation based of Darwin’s observations • Darwin’s focus on the adaptive value of both physical and behavioural characteristics has contributed to developmental theories

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G. Stanley Hall,

founder of the child-study movement Influenced by Darwin’s ideas of evolution

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G. Stanley Hall With Arnold Gesell

launched the normative approach Gesell – parenting advice, children are naturally knowledgeable about their own needs and parents should respond to their cues

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normative approach

Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age related averages are computed to represent typical development.

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Binet and Simon

• The government asked Binet to help place children in classes when they when to a public education system
• In the early 1900s, Binet and Simon developed the first successful intelligence test
• Interdisciplinary, worked with teachers
• In 1916, updated to the Stanford-Binet in the US
• Designed for school placement, but not always used that way

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Mid-Twentieth-Century

where we see the development of some of the theories that continue to be influential today Psychoanalytic perspective o Freud o Erikson Behaviourism o John Watson o B.F. Skinner o Albert Bandura (Social learning theory) Cognitive-developmental theory o Piaget