Early Childhood Study Questions Flashcards Preview

PSYC 3351 Topics in Child Development > Early Childhood Study Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Early Childhood Study Questions Deck (223):
1

Of the following, which statement is true regarding body growth during early childhood?
A. Girls are three times as likely as boys to become obese.
B. The rate of growth increases steadily until the onset of puberty.
C. On average, children add 2 to 3 inches in height and about 5 pounds in weight each year.
D. Boys grow at least twice as fast as girls.


C. On average, children add 2 to 3 inches in height and about 5 pounds in weight each year.

2

Young children in homes with regular smokers are three times more likely than their agemates to
A. do poorly in school.
B. have high thyroxine levels.
C. have decayed teeth.
D. smoke during adolescence.

C. have decayed teeth.

3

Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from _____ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.
A. 70; 90
B. 50; 100
C. 75; 100
D. 50; 70

Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from _____ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.
A. 70; 90

4

__________ skills increase at an astonishing pace in early childhood, and they support children's increasing control over behavior.
A. Fine-motor
B. Language
C. Spatial
D. Gross-motor

__________ skills increase at an astonishing pace in early childhood, and they support children's increasing control over behavior.

B. Language

5

Of the following, which statement is true regarding handedness?

A. The majority of right-handed individuals are actually ambidextrous.
B. Practice using the left or right hand has little effect on young children's hand preference.
C. Left-handers are more likely than right-handers to develop outstanding verbal and mathematical talents.
D. Most preschoolers favor their left hand for drawing and their right hand for eating.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding handedness?

C. Left-handers are more likely than right-handers to develop outstanding verbal and mathematical talents.

6

Research on brain development shows that by age 8 to 10,
A. rates of synaptic pruning increase dramatically.
B. the left and right hemispheres begin to lateralize.
C. brain plasticity reaches its highest level.
D. energy consumption of most cortical regions diminishes to near-adult levels.

Research on brain development shows that by age 8 to 10,

D. energy consumption of most cortical regions diminishes to near-adult levels.

7

Children exposed to lead absorb less of it when their diets contain enough
A. chromium.
B. zinc.
C. salt.
D. magnesium.

Children exposed to lead absorb less of it when their diets contain enough

B. zinc.

8

Of the following, which is responsible for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals?
A. neurotransmitters
B. testosterone
C. growth hormone
D. thyroid-stimulating hormone

Of the following, which is responsible for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals?

C. growth hormone

9

On average, the total amount of sleep __________ in early childhood.
A. increases gradually
B. declines
C. increases sharply
D. remains about the same

On average, the total amount of sleep __________ in early childhood.

B. declines

10

What is the most common sleep problem among 3- to 6-year-olds?
A. sleepwalking
B. insomnia
C. sleep terrors
D. nightmares

What is the most common sleep problem among 3- to 6-year-olds?

D. nightmares

11

Of the following, which technique helps encourage good nutrition in early childhood?

A. banning sweets from the child's diet
B. avoiding using food as a reward
C. providing a limited, familiar diet
D. allowing the child to eat as much as he or she wants

Of the following, which technique helps encourage good nutrition in early childhood?

B. avoiding using food as a reward

12

Of the 10 million deaths worldwide of children under age 5, 70 percent are due to

A. accidents.
B. infectious diseases.
C. accidents.
D. child abuse.

Of the 10 million deaths worldwide of children under age 5, 70 percent are due to

B. infectious diseases.

13

In _____________, ordinary childhood illnesses have no effect on physical growth.

A. well-nourished children
B. the preschool years
C. industrialized nations
D. rural communities

In _____________, ordinary childhood illnesses have no effect on physical growth.

A. well-nourished children

14

In most industrialized nations, health care services are provided at low cost to all citizens because

A. insurance companies cover the majority of medical expenses.
B. health insurance is considered a fundamental human right.
C. the supply of doctors and nurses exceeds the demand.
D. the rate of infectious disease is relatively low.

In most industrialized nations, health care services are provided at low cost to all citizens because


B. health insurance is considered a fundamental human right.

15

Research on immunization indicates that

A. immunizations are unnecessary for healthy, well-nourished children.
B. about 20 percent of U.S. infants and toddlers are not fully immunized.
C. the United States has one of the highest child immunization rates in the world.
D. mercury-based preservatives used in vaccines may cause autism.

Research on immunization indicates that


B. about 20 percent of U.S. infants and toddlers are not fully immunized.

16

By age 3, ___ percent of U.S. children have had respiratory illnesses that resulted in at least one bout of otitis media.
A. 15
B. 35
C. 55
D. 75

By age 3, ___ percent of U.S. children have had respiratory illnesses that resulted in at least one bout of otitis media.

D. 75

17

Childhood injuries commonly viewed as "accidental" actually occur

A. as a result of parent neglect.
B. within a complex ecological system.
C. in child-care or preschool settings.
D. in rural areas with limited access to medical care.

Childhood injuries commonly viewed as "accidental" actually occur


B. within a complex ecological system.

18

An infant or toddler in ______ becomes sick 9 to 10 times a year, mainly from diarrhea and respiratory infections.

A. developing nations
B. foster care
C. the U.S.
D. child care

An infant or toddler in ______ becomes sick 9 to 10 times a year, mainly from diarrhea and respiratory infections.

D. child care

19

Substantially reducing injury rates, especially in overactive and temperamentally difficult children, can be achieved by

A. teaching safety standards in a lecture format.
B. enforcing strict consequences for misbehavior.
C. positive parenting and an affectionate, supportive relationship with the child.
D. restricting children's access to outdoor play until they demonstrate adequate safety knowledge.

Substantially reducing injury rates, especially in overactive and temperamentally difficult children, can be achieved by


C. positive parenting and an affectionate, supportive relationship with the child.

20

Of the following, which statement is true regarding gross-motor development in childhood?

A. By age 2, preschoolers' gaits become smooth and rhythmic.
B. By age 3, most children can catch a ball easily with their hands.
C. By age 4, most children can ride a bicycle with training wheels.
D. As children grow older, their bodies become more top-heavy.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding gross-motor development in childhood?

A. By age 2, preschoolers' gaits become smooth and rhythmic.

21

Fine-motor progress in young children becomes most apparent to parents in two areas:

A. improved athletic skills and balance.
B. riding a bicycle with training wheels and catching balls.
C. children's care of their own bodies and detailed drawings and paintings.
D. increased running speed and true skipping.

Fine-motor progress in young Fine-motor progress in young children becomes most apparent to parents in two areas:

C. children's care of their own bodies and detailed drawings and paintings.
.

22

Around age _____, Mikail should be able to tie his own shoes.
A. 3 to 4
B. 2 to 3
C. 4 to 5
D. 5 to 6

Around age _____, Mikail should be able to tie his own shoes.

D. 5 to 6

23

Of the following, which appears to be a universal beginning in drawing human figures?
A. stick or contour figures
B. geometric shapes
C. three-dimensional forms
D. straight lines only

Of the following, which appears to be a universal beginning in drawing human figures?
A. stick or contour figures

24

As children grow older, differences in motor skills between boys and girls become larger, while differences in physical capacity

A. become less dependent on practice.
B. are nonexistent until adolescence.
C. remain small throughout childhood.
D. decrease gradually through middle childhood.

As children grow older, differences in motor skills between boys and girls become larger, while differences in physical capacity


C. remain small throughout childhood.

25

Research shows that children master the motor skills of early childhood

A. through formal lessons.
B. by observing adults engaged in physical activity.
C. in stages, much like cognitive development.
D. naturally, as part of their everyday play.

Research shows that children master the motor skills of early childhood


D. naturally, as part of their everyday play.

26

Between ages 2 and 6, approximately 45 new __________ emerge in various parts of the skeleton.

A. lymph nodes
B. calcium deposits
C. synapses
D. epiphyses

Between ages 2 and 6, approximately 45 new __________ emerge in various parts of the skeleton.

D. epiphyses

27

How does exposure to tobacco smoke contribute to tooth decay?

A. It causes a craving for sugary foods, which, in turn, causes tooth decay.
B. It introduces bacteria into the tissues of the nose and mouth.
C. It suppresses children's immune system, including the ability to fight bacteria responsible for tooth decay.
D. It counteracts the effects of fluoride treatments.

How does exposure to tobacco smoke contribute to tooth decay?

C. It suppresses children's immune system, including the ability to fight bacteria responsible for tooth decay.

28

Brain-imaging studies reveal that __________ in the cerebral cortex reaches a peak around age 4.

A. hormone production
B. lateralization
C. synaptic pruning
D. energy metabolism

Brain-imaging studies reveal that __________ in the cerebral cortex reaches a peak around age 4.


D. energy metabolism

29

EEG and fMRI measures of neural activity in the brain's various cortical regions reveal especially rapid growth from 3 to 6 years in frontal-lobe areas devoted to

A. spatial skills.
B. short- and long-term memory.
C. motor skills.
D. attention and planning and organizing behavior.

EEG and fMRI measures of neural activity in the brain's various cortical regions reveal especially rapid growth from 3 to 6 years in frontal-lobe areas devoted to


D. attention and planning and organizing behavior.

30

For the 10 percent of left-handers in Western nations, language is occasionally located in the

A. inner hippocampus.
B. left hemisphere of the corpus callosum.
C. base of the cerebellum.
D. right hemisphere, or shared between hemispheres of the brain.

For the 10 percent of left-handers in Western nations, language is occasionally located in the

D. right hemisphere, or shared between hemispheres of the brain.

31

The reticular formation, a structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness,

A. generates synapses and myelinates throughout early childhood and into adolescence.
B. undergoes rapid formation of synapses and myelination in the second half of the first year.
C. helps with memory recall and independent movement.
D. aids in balance and control of body movement.

The reticular formation, a structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness,

A. generates synapses and myelinates throughout early childhood and into adolescence.

32

Two hormones that play a critical role in inducing growth are released by the
A. dominant cerebral hemisphere.
B. thyroid gland.
C. corpus callosum.
D. pituitary gland.

Two hormones that play a critical role in inducing growth are released by the

D. pituitary gland.

33

A deficiency in ______ increases the concentration of lead in the blood.
A. potassium
B. sodium
C. iron
D. calcium

A deficiency in ______ increases the concentration of lead in the blood.

C. iron

34

What is a typical characteristic of psychosocial dwarfism?
A. aggressive behavior
B. poor short-term memory
C. immature skeletal age
D. frequent intestinal illnesses

What is a typical characteristic of psychosocial dwarfism?


C. immature skeletal age

35

Alex sometimes wakes from a deep sleep in a state of panic and does not respond to his parents' attempts to comfort him. Alex is suffering from

A. nervous insomnia.
B. sleepwalking.
C. sleep terrors.
D. nightmares.

Alex sometimes wakes from a deep sleep in a state of panic and does not respond to his parents' attempts to comfort him. Alex is suffering from

C. sleep terrors.

36

Of the following, which statement is true regarding good nutrition in early childhood?

A. A pleasant, relaxed eating environment helps children develop positive attitudes about food.
B. Due to rapid physical development, preschoolers require more dietary fat than adults.
C. Parents should be concerned if young children eat very little at, or skip, some meals.
D. Preschoolers require the same foods that make up a healthy adult diet, but in larger amounts.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding good nutrition in early childhood?

A. A pleasant, relaxed eating environment helps children develop positive attitudes about food.

37

Most deaths of children under age 5 worldwide are caused by _______ diseases.
A. infectious
B. autoimmune
C. glandular
D. hereditary

Most deaths of children under age 5 worldwide are caused by _______ diseases.

A. infectious

38

Overall, _____ percent of American preschoolers lack essential immunizations, a rate that rises to _____ percent for poverty-stricken children.

A. 27; 33
B. 10; 20
C. 35; 45
D. 24; 28

Overall, _____ percent of American preschoolers lack essential immunizations, a rate that rises to _____ percent for poverty-stricken children.

D. 24; 28

39

Under the Children's Health Insurance Program,

A. all low-income children will be eligible for free health care by 2012.
B. states receive federal matching funds for upgrading children's health insurance.
C. all communities must establish child health care clinics.
D. all parents will be required to immunize their children.

Under the Children's Health Insurance Program,


B. states receive federal matching funds for upgrading children's health insurance.

40

Which of the following factors is associated with otitis media?

A. a loud environment
B. prenatal damage to the ear drum
C. exposure to cigarette smoke
D. malnutrition

Which of the following factors is associated with otitis media?


C. exposure to cigarette smoke

41

Unintentional childhood injuries-auto collisions, pedestrian accidents, drownings, burns -are

A. at their lowest level during the preschool years.
B. lower in the U.S. than in other industrialized nations.
C. the leading causes of childhood mortality in industrialized nations.
D. highest among rural preschoolers.

Unintentional childhood injuries-auto collisions, pedestrian accidents, drownings, burns -are


C. the leading causes of childhood mortality in industrialized nations.

42

During the past three decades,

A. rates of unintentional injuries in the U.S. have decreased by 50 percent.
B. rates of unintentional injuries in the U.S. have increased by 20 percent.
C. American parents have changed very little in the amount they do to protect their children from injury.
D. American parents have made great strides to protect their preschoolers from injury.

During the past three decades,

C. American parents have changed very little in the amount they do to protect their children from injury.

43

Which gross-motor skill typically develops last?

A. skipping with one foot
B. walking up stairs, alternating feet
C. jumping and hopping
D. riding a bicycle with training wheels

Which gross-motor skill typically develops last?

D. riding a bicycle with training wheels

44

Which fine-motor skill usually develops last?

A. uses knife to cut soft food
B. dresses without supervision
C. uses a fork effectively
D. grips a pencil

Which fine-motor skill usually develops last?

A. uses knife to cut soft food

45

When attempting to draw a geometric object, 3- to 7-year-olds are likely to draw

A. object parts.
B. three-dimensional forms.
C. a single unit.
D. a tadpole-like shape.

When attempting to draw a geometric object, 3- to 7-year-olds are likely to draw

C. a single unit.

46

In cultures with little interest in art, older children and adolescents produce

A. simple forms.
B. realistic images.
C. dot paintings.
D. line drawings.

In cultures with little interest in art, older children and adolescents produce

A. simple forms.

47

David is in the second grade. What error is he likely to make when attempting to write?

A. reversing letters
B. failing to identify individual letters
C. using his nondominant hand
D. using an awkward pencil grip

David is in the second grade. What error is he likely to make when attempting to write?

A. reversing letters

48

From an early age, boys and girls are usually encouraged to


A. participate in safety training programs.
B. engage in similar physical activities.
C. engage in different physical activities.
D. be competitive and assertive.

From an early age, boys and girls are usually encouraged to


C. engage in different physical activities.

49

Awareness of artistic creative possibilities can be enhanced by

A. exposing children to artwork of their own and other cultures.
B. teaching children to read at an early age.
C. encouraging children to color within the boundaries of objects.
D. encouraging children to solve puzzles.

Awareness of artistic creative possibilities can be enhanced by

A. exposing children to artwork of their own and other cultures.

50

Cultural variations in body size remind us that
A. body growth during early childhood progresses at a relatively fixed rate among all cultures.
B. shorter children will eventually catch up in stature by adolescence.
C. girls and boys are usually similar in size until adolescence .
D. growth norms for one population are not good standards for children elsewhere in the world.

Cultural variations in body size remind us that

D. growth norms for one population are not good standards for children elsewhere in the world.

51

X-rays of the epiphyses enable doctors to estimate children's __________, which is helpful information in diagnosing growth disorders.

A. skeletal age
B. chronological age
C. height and weight
D. bone density

X-rays of the epiphyses enable doctors to estimate children's __________, which is helpful information in diagnosing growth disorders.

A. skeletal age

52

Prolonged malnutrition

A. delays the development of epiphyses.
B. accelerates the development of epiphyses.
C. accelerates the appearance of permanent teeth.
D. delays the appearance of permanent teeth.

Prolonged malnutrition

C. accelerates the appearance of permanent teeth.

53

An overabundance of synaptic connections supports plasticity of the young brain, helping to ensure that the child will

A. acquire certain abilities even if some areas are damaged.
B. conserve energy until the cortical regions are mature.
C. maintain a normal growth curve despite poor nutrition.
D. experience rapid brain lateralization in middle childhood.

An overabundance of synaptic connections supports plasticity of the young brain, helping to ensure that the child will

A. acquire certain abilities even if some areas are damaged.

54

Among left-handed people, language is typically housed in

A. both hemispheres.
B. the frontal lobes.
C. the right hemisphere.
D. the left hemisphere.

Among left-handed people, language is typically housed in

A. both hemispheres.

55

Which part of the brain maintains alertness and consciousness?

A. amygdala
B. hippocampus
C. reticular formation
D. corpus callosum

Which part of the brain maintains alertness and consciousness?

C. reticular formation

56

The corpus callosum supports the integration of

A. perception, attention, memory, language, and problem solving.
B. spatial capacity, logic, and reasoning.
C. motor coordination and physical balance.
D. a healthy sleep-wake cycle.

The corpus callosum supports the integration of

A. perception, attention, memory, language, and problem solving.

57

Before 1980, children were widely exposed to lead contained in

A. plastic.
B. paint.
C. batteries.
D. pencils

Before 1980, children were widely exposed to lead contained in

B. paint.

58

Mr. and Mrs. Banning have just learned that their newborn son has a thyroxine deficiency. Unless he receives thyroxine at once, their son will

A. be mentally retarded.
B. grow too rapidly and have weak bones.
C. fail to grow taller than 4 feet 4 inches.
D. likely die within the first year.

Mr. and Mrs. Banning have just learned that their newborn son has a thyroxine deficiency. Unless he receives thyroxine at once, their son will

A. be mentally retarded.

59

Harper has a GH-deficiency, and Harvey has psychosocial dwarfism. Of the following, which characteristic differentiates Harvey's condition from Harper's?

A. immature skeletal age
B. very short stature
C. decreased GH secretion
D. serious adjustment problems

Harper has a GH-deficiency, and Harvey has psychosocial dwarfism. Of the following, which characteristic differentiates Harvey's condition from Harper's?

D. serious adjustment problems

60

Three-year-old Inho gets 9 hours of sleep per night. His mother thinks that this is enough, since he also gets a 2-hour nap at preschool. Inho's mother

A. is wrong. At age 3, Inho needs 12 to 13 hours of sleep per day.
B. should not worry about the amount of sleep he gets unless he becomes irritable or withdrawn.
C. is right. At age 3, Inho needs 11 to 12 hours of sleep per day.
D. is letting him sleep too long. At age 3, Inho needs only 10 hours of sleep per day.

Three-year-old Inho gets 9 hours of sleep per night. His mother thinks that this is enough, since he also gets a 2-hour nap at preschool. Inho's mother


C. is right. At age 3, Inho needs 11 to 12 hours of sleep per day.

61

Children tend to the food choices and eating practices of

A. their classmates.
B. both adults and peers.
C. older siblings.
D. television characters.

Children tend to the food choices and eating practices of

B. both adults and peers.

62

Throughout childhood and adolescence, a nutritionally deficient diet is often associated with

A. psychosocial dwarfism.
B. lactose intolerance.
C. hyperactivity and aggression.
D. sluggish energy levels.

Throughout childhood and adolescence, a nutritionally deficient diet is often associated with

C. hyperactivity and aggression.

63

In developing countries, widespread diarrhea, resulting from unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to

A. a high rate of abdominal cancers.
B. an intolerance for dairy products.
C. GH and thyroxine deficiencies.
D. several million childhood deaths each year.

In developing countries, widespread diarrhea, resulting from unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to

D. several million childhood deaths each year.

64

Overall, ____ percent of U.S. preschoolers lack essential immunizations.

A. 37
B. 14
C. 7
D. 24

Overall, ____ percent of U.S. preschoolers lack essential immunizations.

A. 37

65

Under the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, many parents who work part-time will

A. have access to high-quality, affordable insurance.
B. continue to face challenges in obtaining affordable insurance.
C. have access to the same health care benefits as parents who work full-time.
D. be exempt from paying costly insurance premiums.

Under the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, many parents who work part-time will

B. continue to face challenges in obtaining affordable insurance.

66

Three-year-old Suri has experienced several bouts of otitis media. Suri is

A. probably living in a rural environment.
B. likely to build up a resistance to oral antibiotics.
C. at-risk for delayed language progress.
D. too young to experience long-term hearing damage.

Three-year-old Suri has experienced several bouts of otitis media. Suri is

C. at-risk for delayed language progress.

67

The leading cause of death among children more than 1 year of age is

A. motor vehicle collisions.
B. infectious diseases.
C. drowning.
D. choking.

The leading cause of death among children more than 1 year of age is

A. motor vehicle collisions.

68

In developing countries, the rate of death from injury before age 15 is __________ than in developed nations.

A. three times lower
B. five times higher
C. twelve times lower
D. ten times higher

In developing countries, the rate of death from injury before age 15 is __________ than in developed nations.

B. five times higher

69

What gross-motor skills does a 3-year-old use to catch a ball?

A. shifts weight forward with outstretched arms
B. moves forward, backward, or sideways to catch with hands and fingers
C. traps the ball in rigid arms and hands
D. traps the ball with flexed elbows against the chest

What gross-motor skills does a 3-year-old use to catch a ball?

C. traps the ball in rigid arms and hands

70

Six-year-old Kimia wants to draw a family picture. What will the family members probably look like?

A. They will have names written underneath each person.
B. They will be tadpole images.
C. They will be simple scribbles and lines.
D. They will each have six parts.

Six-year-old Kimia wants to draw a family picture. What will the family members probably look like?

D. They will each have six parts.

71

Four-year-old Penny is learning to write letters. Which letter pairs will Penny likely have trouble discriminating between?

A. A and a
B. l and t
C. E and P
D. b and d

Four-year-old Penny is learning to write letters. Which letter pairs will Penny likely have trouble discriminating between?

D. b and d

72

Which child is likely to acquire running and jumping skills earlier, in addition to being able to run faster and jump farther than the others?

A. a tall, muscular girl
B. a short, stocky boy
C. a short, stocky girl
D. a tall, muscular boy

Which child is likely to acquire running and jumping skills earlier, in addition to being able to run faster and jump farther than the others?

D. a tall, muscular boy

73

Which physical activity is the only one for which formal instruction during the preschool years will likely lead to better coordination?

A. running
B. gymnastics
C. tumbling
D. throwing

Which physical activity is the only one for which formal instruction during the preschool years will likely lead to better coordination?

D. throwing

74

Mr. Navarro, a preschool teacher, wants to improve the fine-motor skills of his students. Which activities should he encourage?

A. Create mixed-sex groups so that girls can model fine-motor skills for boys.
B. Provide direct instruction on skills like drawing shapes and writing letters.
C. Practice daily routines, such as pouring juice, dressing, and playing with puzzles.
D. Teach skills in a competitive social climate, rewarding those students who excel.

Mr. Navarro, a preschool teacher, wants to improve the fine-motor skills of his students. Which activities should he encourage?


C. Practice daily routines, such as pouring juice, dressing, and playing with puzzles.

75

Piaget believed that

A. language is the primary ingredient in young children's cognitive development.
B. sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children then label with words.
C. children are born with a language acquisition device that facilitates rapid learning.
D. social interaction with skilled partners is necessary for optimal cognitive development.

Piaget believed that

B. sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children then label with words.
.

76

Preschoolers who spend more time in sociodramatic play

A. are seen as more socially competent by their teachers than children who spend less time in make-believe play.
B. are less interested in academic learning than peers who engage in limited make-believe play.
C. are more self-centered than children who spend less time in make-believe play.
D. usually prefer to play alone than with adults or peers.

Preschoolers who spend more time in sociodramatic play

A. are seen as more socially competent by their teachers than children who spend less time in make-believe play.

77

Of the following, which is an example of animistic thinking?

A. Karen says that there are more Dalmatians in the world than dogs.
B. Susie says that there is more liquid in a tall, thin glass than in a short, wide glass.
C. Jason says that the leaves fell off the trees because the trees felt too warm.
D. Andy says that he can talk to animals.

Of the following, which is an example of animistic thinking?

C. Jason says that the leaves fell off the trees because the trees felt too warm.

78

Follow-up research on preoperational thought demonstrates that by age 4, most children

A. mentally organize objects into subclasses.
B. show clear awareness of others' vantage points.
C. believe that magic can alter their everyday experiences.
D. can simultaneously handle three or more tasks.

Follow-up research on preoperational thought demonstrates that by age 4, most children

B. show clear awareness of others' vantage points.

79

Picture-book reading is an especially effective strategy for teaching children about

A. categories.
B. conservation problems.
C. fantastic ideas like the Tooth Fairy.
D. reversibility.

Picture-book reading is an especially effective strategy for teaching children about

A. categories.

80

Parents and teachers can learn a lot about a child's factual and conceptual knowledge from

A. how well children imitate adults.
B. the games children play.
C. the questions children ask.
D. children's nonverbal behavior.

Parents and teachers can learn a lot about a child's factual and conceptual knowledge from

C. the questions children ask.

81

Of the following, which educational principle was derived from Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

A. emphasis on early intervention programs for low-SES children
B. interest in how children measure up to normative standards
C. emphasis on scaffolding children's learning
D. acceptance of individual differences

Of the following, which educational principle was derived from Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

D. acceptance of individual differences

82

Children who freely use private speech during a challenging activity

A. show better task performance than their less talkative agemates.
B. take more time to complete the task than their less talkative agemates.
C. are likely to give up unless an adult intervenes and provides explicit instructions.
D. have difficulty focusing their attention on a single task.

Children who freely use private speech during a challenging activity

A. show better task performance than their less talkative agemates.

83

Which of the following illustrates an early capacity for intersubjectivity?

A. understanding of false-belief
B. ability to solve conservation problems
C. a well-developed autobiographical memory
D. parent-infant mutual gaze

Which of the following illustrates an early capacity for intersubjectivity?

D. parent-infant mutual gaze

84

Vygotsky saw make-believe play as a way for children to

A. make friends and build social skills.
B. practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes.
C. relieve stress and regulate emotions.
D. learn to follow internal ideas and social rules rather than immediate impulses.

Vygotsky saw make-believe play as a way for children to

D. learn to follow internal ideas and social rules rather than immediate impulses.

85

In village and tribal cultures, children receive very little

A. adult supervision.
B. religious instruction.
C. formal education.
D. emotional support from adults.

In village and tribal cultures, children receive very little

C. formal education.


86

Five-year-old Liz accesses her __________ of last year's beach trip to predict what will occur during this summer's beach trip.

A. episodic memory
B. cognitive scheme
C. short-term memory
D. script

Five-year-old Liz accesses her __________ of last year's beach trip to predict what will occur during this summer's beach trip.

D. script

87

In Tools of the Mind, a preschool curriculum inspired by Vygotsky's theory, ________________ is woven into virtually all classroom activities.

A. scaffolding of attention skills
B. direct literacy instruction
C. conflict resolution
D. an emphasis on moral reasoning

In Tools of the Mind, a preschool curriculum inspired by Vygotsky's theory, ________________ is woven into virtually all classroom activities.

A. scaffolding of attention skills

88

Which of the following cultural tools supports young children's planning skills?

A. conversations with imaginary companions
B. recipes for cooking
C. singing hymns
D. solitary play

Which of the following cultural tools supports young children's planning skills?

B. recipes for cooking

89

From age _____ on, children realize that both beliefs and desires determine behavior.

A. 5
B. 3
C. 4
D. 6

From age _____ on, children realize that both beliefs and desires determine behavior.

C. 4

90

Children who spontaneously use complex sentences with mental-state words

A. prefer playing with older children rather than agemates.
B. are likely to pass false-belief tasks.
C. easily follow task directions.
D. prefer writing to reading.

Children who spontaneously use complex sentences with mental-state words

B. are likely to pass false-belief tasks.

91

Which word would be rarely used by a child with autism?

A. pretend
B. I
C. no
D. yes

Which word would be rarely used by a child with autism?

A. pretend

92


What is an effective strategy for stimulating emergent literacy in low-SES preschoolers?

A. Have preschoolers pretend to read books to infants.
B. Provide parents with children's books, along with home guidance.
C. Assign daily language homework to children.
D. Encourage children to watch educational television programs.


What is an effective strategy for stimulating emergent literacy in low-SES preschoolers?

B. Provide parents with children's books, along with home guidance.

93

Although the issue of possible cultural bias in mental testing has been hotly debated,

A. test scores remain important because by age 6 or 7, they are good predictors of later IQ.
B. few studies have found a link between ethnicity or SES and IQ scores.
C. contemporary intelligence tests only include unbiased items.
D. the IQ gap between middle-SES and lower-SES children has narrowed in recent years.

Although the issue of possible cultural bias in mental testing has been hotly debated,

A. test scores remain important because by age 6 or 7, they are good predictors of later IQ.

94

To be considered a preschool, a program must

A. serve nutritious meals at appropriate times throughout the day.
B. have planned educational experiences aimed at enhancing development.
C. have health and safety standards that ensure the physical well-being of all children.
D. maintain proper adult-child ratios as required by law.

To be considered a preschool, a program must

B. have planned educational experiences aimed at enhancing development.

95

A study of the long-term effects of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project found that

A. the intervention led to improved cognitive abilities, but had little impact on social adjustment.
B. all benefits associated with the intervention had disappeared by the end of third grade.
C. the program was associated with reduced pregnancy and delinquency rates in adolescence.
D. cognitive and social benefits were only observed in children from middle-SES homes.

A study of the long-term effects of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project found that

C. the program was associated with reduced pregnancy and delinquency rates in adolescence.

96

suggest that _____ percent of preschoolers play video games on a daily basis, that figure rises to _____ percent in middle childhood.

A. 7; 35
B. 3; 35
C. 7; 50
D. 3; 50

suggest that _____ percent of preschoolers play video games on a daily basis, that figure rises to _____ percent in middle childhood.

B. 3; 35

97

What strategy do 2-year-olds use when naming objects that are perceptually distinct?

A. mutual exclusivity
B. syntactic bootstrapping
C. semantic bootstrapping
D. fast mapping

What strategy do 2-year-olds use when naming objects that are perceptually distinct?

A. mutual exclusivity

98

Research on children's pragmatic development shows that __________ are more common in the early vocabularies of later-born than of firstborn siblings.

A. adjectives
B. mental-state words
C. verbs
D. personal pronouns

Research on children's pragmatic development shows that __________ are more common in the early vocabularies of later-born than of firstborn siblings.

D. personal pronouns

99

Stanley said, "My toy breaked," and his mother replied, "Yes, you broke your toy." Stanley's mother's response is an example of a(n)

A. turnabout.
B. recast.
C. verbal syntax.
D. overregularization.

Stanley said, "My toy breaked," and his mother replied, "Yes, you broke your toy." Stanley's mother's response is an example of a(n)

B. recast.

100

Piaget acknowledged that _____________ is our most flexible means of mental representation.

A. social interaction
B. conservation
C. egocentrism
D. language

Piaget acknowledged that _____________ is our most flexible means of mental representation.

D. language

101

As make-believe play becomes more advanced,

A. play becomes increasingly self-centered.
B. the number of complex schemes involved in play declines.
C. play is increasingly detached from the real-life conditions associated with it.
D. children prefer to play with peers instead of adults

As make-believe play becomes more advanced,

C. play is increasingly detached from the real-life conditions associated with it.

102

Piaget's three-mountains problem illustrates preschoolers'

A. centrism.
B. animistic thinking.
C. egocentrism.
D. inability to conserve.

Piaget's three-mountains problem illustrates preschoolers'

C. egocentrism.

103

When Piaget showed children 16 flowers, 4 of which were blue and 12 of which were yellow, and asked the children whether there were more yellow flowers or more flowers, preschoolers typically said that

A. there were more blue flowers.
B. there were more flowers.
C. they could not count all of the flowers.
D. there were more yellow flowers.

When Piaget showed children 16 flowers, 4 of which were blue and 12 of which were yellow, and asked the children whether there were more yellow flowers or more flowers, preschoolers typically said that

D. there were more yellow flowers.

104

The fact that 4-year-olds use simpler expressions when talking to 2-year-olds than to agemates suggests that Piaget was wrong about

A. animism.
B. egocentrism.
C. magical thinking.
D. conservation.

The fact that 4-year-olds use simpler expressions when talking to 2-year-olds than to agemates suggests that Piaget was wrong about

B. egocentrism.

105

By what age do children adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listeners?

A. 2 years
B. 3 years
C. 4 years
D. 5 years

By what age do children adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listeners?

C. 4 years

106

Piaget overestimated preschoolers' animistic beliefs because

A. he asked them about objects of which they had incomplete knowledge.
B. preschoolers cannot appreciate others' intentions and perspectives.
C. preschoolers are too young to display illogical thought.
D. most preschoolers cannot yet categorize living and nonliving things.

Piaget overestimated preschoolers' animistic beliefs because

A. he asked them about objects of which they had incomplete knowledge.

107

Studies show that preschoolers are able to think more logically than Piaget believed as long as

A. the tasks are nonverbal in nature.
B. the tasks are made relevant to their everyday lives.
C. they are given adequate time to solve the problem.
D. they have adequate language skills.

Studies show that preschoolers are able to think more logically than Piaget believed as long as


B. the tasks are made relevant to their everyday lives.

108

When young children converse with adults, they ask

A. questions for which they already know the answer.
B. approximately three questions per topic.
C. more than one question per minute.
D. primarily yes or no questions.

When young children converse with adults, they ask

C. more than one question per minute.

109

What are three cognitive attainments of a typical 2- to 4-year-old?

A. aware that make-believe is representational, understands photos, and categorizes objects
B. distinguishes animate from inanimate, reverses thinking, and sorts objects into categories
C. uses plausible explanations, notices transformations, and understands maps
D. reads without assistance, solves verbal appearance-reality problems, and sorts categories

What are three cognitive attainments of a typical 2- to 4-year-old?


B. distinguishes animate from inanimate, reverses thinking, and sorts objects into categories

110

Evidence from several sources suggests that

A. the acquisition of logical operations occurs by age 3.
B. Piaget overestimated preschoolers' cognitive abilities.
C. logical operations develop gradually, not in the abrupt fashion that Piaget described.
D. preschoolers cannot grasp the appearance-reality distinction.

Evidence from several sources suggests that

C. logical operations develop gradually, not in the abrupt fashion that Piaget described.

111

In Vygotsky's view, children speak to themselves

A. for emotional support.
B. to alleviate boredom.
C. for self-guidance.
D. because they are egocentric.

In Vygotsky's view, children speak to themselves

C. for self-guidance.

112

As a child's competence with social experience increases, effective scaffolders gradually and sensitively withdraw support

A. turning over responsibility to the child.
B. while continuing to give the child direct instructions.
C. until the child becomes frustrated or asks for help.
D. to assess the child's social skills.

As a child's competence with social experience increases, effective scaffolders gradually and sensitively withdraw support

A. turning over responsibility to the child.

113

Piaget paid far more attention than Vygotsky to the development of

A. basic cognitive processes.
B. social skills.
C. metacognition.
D. information-processing skills.

Piaget paid far more attention than Vygotsky to the development of

A. basic cognitive processes.

114

Yucatec Mayan children are highly competent at

A. make-believe play.
B. using tools.
C. cooperating with other children.
D. making decisions for themselves.

Yucatec Mayan children are highly competent at

D. making decisions for themselves.

115

ERP and fMRI measures reveal a steady age-related increase in activation of __________ while children engage in activities requiring suppression of inappropriate responses.

A. thyroxine
B. cortisol
C. the reticular formation
D. the prefrontal cortex

ERP and fMRI measures reveal a steady age-related increase in activation of __________ while children engage in activities requiring suppression of inappropriate responses.

D. the prefrontal cortex

116

Mrs. Cortez is a preschool teacher who encourages her students to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language. Mrs. Cortez is teaching her students

A. the whole language approach.
B. phonological awareness.
C. independent reading skills.
D. basic grammar rules.

Mrs. Cortez is a preschool teacher who encourages her students to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language. Mrs. Cortez is teaching her students

B. phonological awareness.

117

From the first year on, children with autism have

A. an overly active prefrontal cortex.
B. excessive activity in the region of the brain that regulates emotion.
C. fewer neurons than children without autism.
D. larger-than-average brains.

From the first year on, children with autism have

D. larger-than-average brains.

118

By age _____, most children realize that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set.

A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

By age _____, most children realize that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set.

C. 4


119

Preschoolers who develop well intellectually have parents who

A. rely on a reward-punishment disciplinary approach.
B. resolve conflicts with reason instead of physical force and punishment.
C. work fewer than 40 hours per week.
D. enroll them in private child care.

Preschoolers who develop well intellectually have parents who

B. resolve conflicts with reason instead of physical force and punishment.

120

Mandy and Michael attend a child-centered preschool. Of the following, which best describes their classroom?

A. Children select from a wide variety of activities and most of the day is devoted to play.
B. Children with specific problems in pre-reading and writing skills receive one-on-one tutoring.
C. Children are taught letters, numbers, colors, and shapes through structured activities.
D. Children are carefully supervised and play time is limited to less than one hour per day.

Mandy and Michael attend a child-centered preschool. Of the following, which best describes their classroom?

A. Children select from a wide variety of activities and most of the day is devoted to play.

121

Gains in IQ and achievement test scores after attending Head Start and other intervention programs

A. quickly dissolve.
B. remain above average throughout the school years.
C. continue to improve after the transition into public school.
D. remain stable over time.

Gains in IQ and achievement test scores after attending Head Start and other intervention programs

A. quickly dissolve.

122

By age 6, Emily should have acquired approximately _____ vocabulary words.

A. 1,000
B. 5,000
C. 7,000
D. 10,000

By age 6, Emily should have acquired approximately _____ vocabulary words.

D. 10,000

123

To fill in for words they have not yet learned, children will

A. coin new words based on ones they already know.
B. look to an adult to provide the missing word.
C. make up a nonsense word.
D. substitute an inappropriate word, and ask an adult for approval.

To fill in for words they have not yet learned, children will

A. coin new words based on ones they already know.

124

When children adopt a mutual exclusivity bias to aid them in learning new word meanings, they

A. often make gross grammatical errors.
B. assume that words refer to nonoverlapping categories.
C. ignore the object's shape and focus on the color.
D. overextend previously learned grammatical rules.

When children adopt a mutual exclusivity bias to aid them in learning new word meanings, they

B. assume that words refer to nonoverlapping categories.

125

Mrs. Bransford has four children: John, age 2; Jacob, age 4; Janice, age 7; and Jessica, age 9. __________ is just entering Piaget's preoperational stage, while __________ is about to leave it.

A. John; Jessica
B. Jacob; Jessica
C. Jacob; Janice
D. John; Janice

Mrs. Bransford has four children: John, age 2; Jacob, age 4; Janice, age 7; and Jessica, age 9. __________ is just entering Piaget's preoperational stage, while __________ is about to leave it.

D. John; Janice

126

Three-year-old Madison judges a 2-inch toy shoe as small. When she compares it to a tiny 5-inch doll, she judges the shoe as big. Madison is demonstrating

A. animistic thinking
B. a nonegocentric response.
C. centration.
D. an egocentric response.

Three-year-old Madison judges a 2-inch toy shoe as small. When she compares it to a tiny 5-inch doll, she judges the shoe as big. Madison is demonstrating

B. a nonegocentric response.

127

At what age do children break down basic-level categories of objects into subcategories?

A. 1 to 2 years
B. 2 to 3 years
C. 3 to 4 years
D. 4 to 5 years

At what age do children break down basic-level categories of objects into subcategories?

C. 3 to 4 years

128

How do children grasp the dual representation of symbolic objects?

A. by exposure to diverse symbols
B. through conversations with peers
C. through exposure to educational media
D. by improving their recognition and recall skills

How do children grasp the dual representation of symbolic objects?

A. by exposure to diverse symbols

129

At a time when vocabulary is advancing rapidly, about 60 percent of 1½ -2 year-olds' questions ask

A. about past events, such as an earlier trip to the zoo.
B. for the function of objects.
C. about future events, such as an upcoming birthday.
D. for names of objects.

At a time when vocabulary is advancing rapidly, about 60 percent of 1½ -2 year-olds' questions ask

D. for names of objects.

130

Which cognitive attainment appears at the latest age?

A. understanding of dual representation
B. replaces magical beliefs with plausible explanations
C. reverses thinking
D. distinguishes animate beings from inanimate objects

Which cognitive attainment appears at the latest age?

B. replaces magical beliefs with plausible explanations

131

Liv is a Piagetian first-grade teacher who wants to incorporate discovery learning in her classroom. She will probably

A. observe and assume that her students will learn best without interference.
B. provide a rich variety of activities to promote exploration.
C. provide direct instruction and encourage solitary and parallel play.
D. provide explicit, verbal training in each subject area.

Liv is a Piagetian first-grade teacher who wants to incorporate discovery learning in her classroom. She will probably

B. provide a rich variety of activities to promote exploration.

132

During which situation will 4-year-old Pietro engage in private speech?

A. during a challenging task
B. before beginning a task to clarify the directions out loud
C. during a simple task
D. when he has successfully completed a task

During which situation will 4-year-old Pietro engage in private speech?

A. during a challenging task

133

Scaffolding is generally used __________, while guided participation is used __________.

A. in one-on-one settings; in large group settings
B. in adult-led situations; during peer-tutoring sessions
C. to fit the child's level of performance; to encompass diverse learning through involvement with others
D. by teachers who rarely engage in direct instruction; by teachers who prefer discovery learning

Scaffolding is generally used __________, while guided participation is used __________.

C. to fit the child's level of performance; to encompass diverse learning through involvement with others

134

Ms. Thomas wants to use peer collaboration in her classroom. She will likely

A. guide students' learning by using explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts.
B. provide little or no direct instruction, but allow children to select partners and work together.
C. have children with varying abilities work in groups, teaching and helping one another.
D. have children in high-performing groups help children in low-performing groups.

Ms. Thomas wants to use peer collaboration in her classroom. She will likely

C. have children with varying abilities work in groups, teaching and helping one another.

135

How do Yucatec Mayan children respond when an adult interrupts their activity and directs them to do a chore?

A. They ask for something more interesting to do.
B. They insist on continuing to do what they were doing.
C. They engage in attention-getting behavior.
D. They eagerly comply with the request.

How do Yucatec Mayan children respond when an adult interrupts their activity and directs them to do a chore?

D. They eagerly comply with the request.

136

Critics of Vygotsky's work argue that

A. he overemphasized the means by which basic skills contribute to higher cognitive processes.
B. he overestimated the caregiver's role in a child's cognitive development.
C. verbal communication is the most significant means for teaching children in every culture.
D. verbal communication is not the only means through which children's thinking develops.

Critics of Vygotsky's work argue that

D. verbal communication is not the only means through which children's thinking develops.

137

Preschoolers are more likely to generate and follow a plan if the tasks are

A. familiar and not too complex.
B. familiar but challenging.
C. unfamiliar and require a series of orderly steps.
D. unfamiliar but fairly easy to understand.

Preschoolers are more likely to generate and follow a plan if the tasks are

A. familiar and not too complex.

138

Robert Siegler used the microgenetic research design to study how children

A. develop private speech.
B. overcome egocentrism.
C. solve problems.
D. learn new words.

Robert Siegler used the microgenetic research design to study how children

C. solve problems.

139

Children with autism tend to

A. have a narrow range of interests.
B. have extremely high IQs.
C. enjoy make-believe play.
D. be extremely emotional.

Children with autism tend to

A. have a narrow range of interests.

140

As 2-year-olds' vocabularies expand, their first verbs include such words as

A. think, remember, and pretend.
B. play, eat, and drink.
C. ask, want, and see.
D. go, run, and walk.

As 2-year-olds' vocabularies expand, their first verbs include such words as

A. think, remember, and pretend.

141

A father who wants to encourage emergent literacy and later reading and spelling achievement should help his preschooler develop

A. organizational strategies.
B. phonological awareness skills.
C. a strong grasp of ordinality.
D. a repetitive conversational style.

A father who wants to encourage emergent literacy and later reading and spelling achievement should help his preschooler develop

B. phonological awareness skills.

142

Research shows that in low-income neighborhoods, there is/are ________ book(s) for every 300 children.

A. 1
B. 13
C. 30
D. 300

Research shows that in low-income neighborhoods, there is/are ________ book(s) for every 300 children.

A. 1

143

During snack time, 3-year-old Trevor notices that he has two peanut butter crackers and that Tyler has three. Trevor complains "no fair" to his teacher, who gives him one more cracker. Trevor is displaying an understanding of

A. the min strategy.
B. ordinality.
C. functionality.
D. cardinality

During snack time, 3-year-old Trevor notices that he has two peanut butter crackers and that Tyler has three. Trevor complains "no fair" to his teacher, who gives him one more cracker. Trevor is displaying an understanding of

B. ordinality.


144

Of the following, which statement is true regarding children's television viewing?

A. Sesame Street has resumed a rapid-paced format to match young children's short attention spans.
B. The more young children watch prime-time television and cartoons, the poorer their academic skills.
C. Low-SES children have limited access to television, and thus watch less TV than high-SES children.
D. Research has shown no link between viewing Sesame Street and gains in academic test scores.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding children's television viewing?

B. The more young children watch prime-time television and cartoons, the poorer their academic skills.

145

A kindergarten teacher wants to improve her students' math skills. To achieve the best results, she should

A. teach simple math keyboard commands.
B. emphasize drill-and-practice math activities on the computer.
C. combine everyday and computer experiences with math manipulatives.
D. first introduce math manipulatives and reward children by allowing them to use the computer.

A kindergarten teacher wants to improve her students' math skills. To achieve the best results, she should

C. combine everyday and computer experiences with math manipulatives.

146

Of the following, which is an example of syntactic bootstrapping?

A. A parent fast-maps the word "citron" by reading a story about a lemon to the child.
B. A child learns the definition for the word "citron" by looking it up in a dictionary.
C. A child figures out that the word "citron" is a synonym for yellow as the teacher consistently uses it when referring to yellow objects.
D. A teacher uses direct instruction to teach the word "citron" as a synonym for yellow.

Of the following, which is an example of syntactic bootstrapping?

C. A child figures out that the word "citron" is a synonym for yellow as the teacher consistently uses it when referring to yellow objects.

147

A 2-year-old child who says, "I swinged really high on my swing," is displaying

A. a mutual exclusivity bias.
B. overregularization.
C. pragmatics.
D. fast mapping.

A 2-year-old child who says, "I swinged really high on my swing," is displaying

B. overregularization.

148

As Mr. Deveraux converses with his preschooler, he takes turns, remains on the same topic, and states his messages clearly. This practical, social side of language is called

A. pragmatics.
B. fast mapping.
C. mutual exclusivity.
D. semantic bootstrapping.

As Mr. Deveraux converses with his preschooler, he takes turns, remains on the same topic, and states his messages clearly. This practical, social side of language is called

A. pragmatics.

149

One way that adults can help promote preschoolers' language is to

A. introduce no fewer than five new vocabulary words every day.
B. ask them to start over and self-correct when they make a mistake.
C. give helpful, explicit feedback when children use words incorrectly or communicate unclearly.
D. keep conversations with preschoolers simple so that mistakes are less likely to occur.

One way that adults can help promote preschoolers' language is to

C. give helpful, explicit feedback when children use words incorrectly or communicate unclearly.

150

According to Erikson, once children have a sense of autonomy, they

A. begin to develop more mature self-regulatory skills.
B. gain a sense of purposefulness and are eager to tackle new tasks.
C. expect the world to be positive and gratifying.
D. become more contrary than they were as toddlers.

According to Erikson, once children have a sense of autonomy, they

B. gain a sense of purposefulness and are eager to tackle new tasks.

151

Which self-description is more likely from a Chinese child than from an American child?

A. "I help my brother get dressed in the morning."
B. "I read lots of books."
C. "I like playing football."
D. "I'm the smartest kid in my class."

Which self-description is more likely from a Chinese child than from an American child?

A. "I help my brother get dressed in the morning."

152

Overall, preschoolers have

A. an impressive ability to interpret, predict, and change others' feelings.
B. difficulty interpreting and responding to others' feelings.
C. difficulty connecting thinking to feelings.
D. a tendency to rely on adults to explain others' feelings.

Overall, preschoolers have

A. an impressive ability to interpret, predict, and change others' feelings.

153

To promote good social relations, most cultures teach children to

A. communicate all of their feelings, both positive and negative.
B. assess others' feelings, both positive and negative.
C. communicate positive feelings and inhibit unpleasant ones.
D. express negative feelings to adults and positive feelings to siblings and peers.

To promote good social relations, most cultures teach children to

C. communicate positive feelings and inhibit unpleasant ones.

154

Parten's three-step sequence of peer sociability includes

A. parallel play, constructive play, and social activity.
B. make-believe play, onlooker behavior, and solitary play.
C. nonsocial activity, parallel play, and associative play.
D. physical play, nonsocial activity, and cooperative play.

Parten's three-step sequence of peer sociability includes

C. nonsocial activity, parallel play, and associative play.


155

Most preschoolers who spend time playing by themselves

A. lag behind agemates in cognitive development.
B. would prefer to play with another person.
C. engage in positive and constructive solitary activities.
D. lack the necessary social skills to play with peers.

Most preschoolers who spend time playing by themselves

C. engage in positive and constructive solitary activities.

156

Which of the following statements about cross-cultural differences in children's peer sociability is true?

A. Children in collectivist societies spend more time in solitary play than children in individualistic societies.
B. Unlike individualistic cultures, collectivist societies stress group harmony during play.
C. Children engage in very similar play patterns in all cultures.
D. Parents in all cultures recognize the importance of structured daily play activities.

Which of the following statements about cross-cultural differences in children's peer sociability is true?

B. Unlike individualistic cultures, collectivist societies stress group harmony during play.

157

Four- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as

A. based on abstract qualities, like fairness.
B. pleasurable play and sharing of toys.
C. based on sharing thoughts and feelings.
D. having enduring, long-term qualities.

Four- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as

B. pleasurable play and sharing of toys.

158

Children who have difficulty with peer relations

A. are usually only children.
B. avoid spending time with other children to avoid conflict.
C. are often charming and socially skilled around adults.
D. often hold biased social expectations and misinterpret others' behavior.

Children who have difficulty with peer relations

D. often hold biased social expectations and misinterpret others' behavior.

159

______________ seems particularly effective for promoting peer interaction skills.

A. Adult instruction in conflict resolution
B. Sharing chores with siblings
C. Observing cartoon characters behaving prosocially
D. Parent-child play

______________ seems particularly effective for promoting peer interaction skills.

D. Parent-child play

160

Regarding the development of morality, psychoanalytic theory stresses

A. how moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling.
B. how society establishes different rules for children and adults.
C. the emotional side of conscience development.
D. children's ability to reason about justice and fairness.

Regarding the development of morality, psychoanalytic theory stresses

C. the emotional side of conscience development.

161

How can parents of fearless, impulsive children best foster conscience development?

A. through strict supervision and use of corporal punishment when necessary
B. by threatening to withdraw parental love
C. by ensuring a secure attachment relationship and firmly correcting misbehavior
D. through the use of requests, suggestions, and explanations

How can parents of fearless, impulsive children best foster conscience development?

C. by ensuring a secure attachment relationship and firmly correcting misbehavior

162

Twin studies suggest a ______ genetic contribution to empathy and prosocial behavior.

A. modest
B. weak
C. negligible
D. strong

Twin studies suggest a ______ genetic contribution to empathy and prosocial behavior.

A. modest

163

Parents are most likely to rely on punishment or physical restraint when they want

A. a strong emotional bond with their child.
B. lasting changes in behavior.
C. accountability and an apology.
D. immediate compliance.

Parents are most likely to rely on punishment or physical restraint when they want

D. immediate compliance.

164

The most effective forms of discipline

A. involve corporal punishment.
B. involve tangible rewards.
C. are spankings and time out.
D. encourage good conduct.

The most effective forms of discipline

D. encourage good conduct.

165

Use of physical punishment is highest among

A. white families.
B. Asian and Latino mothers.
C. unmarried fathers.
D. low-SES ethnic-minority parents.

Use of physical punishment is highest among

D. low-SES ethnic-minority parents.

166

Three- and 4-year-olds typically judge __________ violations as more wrong than __________ violations.

A. moral; social-convention
B. school; home
C. emotional; physical
D. deliberate; moral

Three- and 4-year-olds typically judge __________ violations as more wrong than __________ violations.

A. moral; social-convention

167

Between early and middle childhood, instrumental aggression __________ and hostile aggression __________.

A. rises; declines
B. rises; stays the same
C. emerges; dissipates
D. declines; rises

Between early and middle childhood, instrumental aggression __________ and hostile aggression __________.

D. declines; rises

168

The pattern of a conflict-ridden family atmosphere and an "out-of-control" child begins with

A. parental substance abuse.
B. forceful discipline.
C. economic hardship.
D. inconsistent punishment.

The pattern of a conflict-ridden family atmosphere and an "out-of-control" child begins with

B. forceful discipline.

169

Children who are targets of harsh, inconsistent discipline and who are high in reactive aggression often

A. withdraw from groups to play by themselves.
B. experience intense shame and guilt.
C. spend long hours in child care.
D. see hostile intent where it does not exist.

Children who are targets of harsh, inconsistent discipline and who are high in reactive aggression often

D. see hostile intent where it does not exist.

170

Time spent watching violent TV programming in childhood and adolescence

A. predicts aggressive behavior in adult males but not females.
B. is unrelated to adult aggression.
C. predicts aggressive behavior in early adulthood.
D. is primarily harmful to children with below-average IQ scores.

Time spent watching violent TV programming in childhood and adolescence

C. predicts aggressive behavior in early adulthood.

171


Research on children's gender-stereotyped beliefs indicates that most 3- to 6-year-olds

A. will accept a playmate or become friends with a child who violates a gender stereotype.
B. understand that characteristics associated with one's sex do not determine whether a person is male or female.
C. are extremely flexible in their beliefs about gender.
D. are firm about not wanting to be friends with a child who violates a gender stereotype.

Research on children's gender-stereotyped beliefs indicates that most 3- to 6-year-olds

D. are firm about not wanting to be friends with a child who violates a gender stereotype.

172

Maccoby argues that girls prefer to play in pairs and boys prefer larger-group play because

A. sex hormones affect human play styles.
B. these behaviors are encouraged in preschool settings.
C. boys imitate group behavior modeled by men, and girls imitate group behavior modeled by women.
D. early on, boys have more advanced social skills than girls.

Maccoby argues that girls prefer to play in pairs and boys prefer larger-group play because

A. sex hormones affect human play styles.

173

Upon finding out about his circumcision accident, "Brenda"

A. immediately committed suicide.
B. decided to return to his biological sex.
C. decided to go through with additional surgery to become fully female.
D. cut off all contact with his family.

Upon finding out about his circumcision accident, "Brenda"

B. decided to return to his biological sex.

174

Which of the following may be responsible for preschoolers' difficulty grasping the permanence of sex?

A. lack of social experience
B. cognitive immaturity
C. egocentrism
D. in-group favoritism

Which of the following may be responsible for preschoolers' difficulty grasping the permanence of sex?

B. cognitive immaturity

175

By age 3½, children describe themselves in terms of

A. both positive and negative attributes.
B. emotions and attitudes.
C. values and beliefs.
D. direct references to personality traits.

By age 3½, children describe themselves in terms of

B. emotions and attitudes.

176

Whereas most Americans feel that _________ is crucial for healthy development, Chinese adults generally see it as unimportant.

A. make-believe play
B. self-esteem
C. strict discipline
D. loyalty to family

Whereas most Americans feel that _________ is crucial for healthy development, Chinese adults generally see it as unimportant.

B. self-esteem

177

Because preschoolers have difficulty distinguishing between their desired and actual competence, they usually

A. give up easily when tasks become overly challenging.
B. underestimate their ability and overestimate the difficulty of the task at hand.
C. rate their own ability as extremely high and often underestimate task difficulty.
D. rely on peers to provide feedback on their performance.

Because preschoolers have difficulty distinguishing between their desired and actual competence, they usually

C. rate their own ability as extremely high and often underestimate task difficulty.

178

Four- to 5-year-olds correctly judge the cause of many basic emotions, but

A. do not understand the connection between feelings and behavior.
B. tend to explain them by emphasizing external factors over internal states.
C. are unable to identify those emotions using facial expressions.
D. are more accurate in describing the causes of negative emotions than positive ones.

Four- to 5-year-olds correctly judge the cause of many basic emotions, but

B. tend to explain them by emphasizing external factors over internal states.

179

Among Western children, __________ is associated with maladjustment, but __________ is related to good adjustment.

A. jealousy; affection
B. emotion; pride
C. intense shame; guilt
D. sensitivity; shame

Among Western children, __________ is associated with maladjustment, but __________ is related to good adjustment.

C. intense shame; guilt

180

Research shows that empathy

A. tends to be delayed in only children.
B. does not always yield acts of kindness and helpfulness.
C. is required for the development of sympathy.
D. is advanced in children who are frequently punished for treating others badly.

Research shows that empathy

B. does not always yield acts of kindness and helpfulness.

181

Longitudinal evidence on Parten's play types indicates that

A. nonsocial activity usually disappears as children transition to preschool.
B. play types emerge in the order she suggested, but later-appearing types do not replace earlier ones.
C. play types do not emerge in the order that she suggested.
D. there are many more play types than she described.

Longitudinal evidence on Parten's play types indicates that

B. play types emerge in the order she suggested, but later-appearing types do not replace earlier ones.

182

For a preschooler, a large amount of time spent playing alone is

A. may signal an emotional problem.
B. especially common in high-conflict families.
C. a sign of cognitive immaturity and egocentrism.
D. cause for concern only when it involves certain activities like aimless wandering.

For a preschooler, a large amount of time spent playing alone is

D. cause for concern only when it involves certain activities like aimless wandering.

183

Of the following, which statement is true regarding preschoolers' social problem solving?

A. Friends argue less than other peers do.
B. Children rarely come into conflict with each other.
C. Conflict teaches children how to solve disputes constructively.
D. Disagreements often result in hostile encounters.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding preschoolers' social problem solving?

C. Conflict teaches children how to solve disputes constructively.

184

One way parents directly influence a preschooler's peer relations is by

A. creating a secure attachment between the child and his teacher.
B. allowing the child to work through interpersonal problems on her own.
C. frequently arranging informal peer play activities.
D. teaching the child how to handle conflict.

One way parents directly influence a preschooler's peer relations is by

C. frequently arranging informal peer play activities.

185

When parents frequently use threats, commands, or physical force, children

A. develop a strong conscience.
B. internalize their parents' standards of moral behavior.
C. tend to violate standards often and feel little guilt.
D. respond with high levels of self-blame after misbehaving.

When parents frequently use threats, commands, or physical force, children

C. tend to violate standards often and feel little guilt.

186

Preschoolers whose parents use __________ as a discipline method have children who are more likely to refrain from wrongdoing and display prosocial behavior.

A. commands
B. threats and warnings
C. induction
D. physical force

Preschoolers whose parents use __________ as a discipline method have children who are more likely to refrain from wrongdoing and display prosocial behavior.

C. induction

187

According to social learning theory, moral behavior is acquired through

A. reinforcement and modeling.
B. observation and punishment.
C. identification with the same-sex parent in order to avoid guilt feelings.
D. direct instruction in conflict resolution.

According to social learning theory, moral behavior is acquired through

A. reinforcement and modeling.

188

In a recent U.S. opinion poll, 72 percent of adults

A. agreed that it is "OK" to spank a child.
B. preferred time out over other forms of discipline.
C. rejected the idea that it is "OK" to spank a child.
D. admitting to regularly using harsh discipline.

In a recent U.S. opinion poll, 72 percent of adults

A. agreed that it is "OK" to spank a child.

189

Among Caucasian-American parents, physical punishment is

A. delivered in a context of parental warmth.
B. intended to help children become responsible adults.
C. generally considered wrong.
D. generally mild.

Among Caucasian-American parents, physical punishment is

C. generally considered wrong.

190

Telling other children not to play with someone because he dresses strangely would be an example of __________ aggression.

A. hostile
B. instrumental
C. emotional
D. relational

Telling other children not to play with someone because he dresses strangely would be an example of __________ aggression.

D. relational

191

Children who are the target of harsh, inconsistent discipline

A. work harder to create and sustain positive peer relations.
B. develop particularly strong superegos that guide their behavior.
C. begin to see hostile intent where it does not exist.
D. withdraw from interactions with both parents and peers.

Children who are the target of harsh, inconsistent discipline

C. begin to see hostile intent where it does not exist.

192

Of the following, which statement is true regarding violent media and aggression?

A. Media violence "hardens" children to aggression, making them more willing to tolerate it in others.
B. Contrary to popular belief, no relationship exists between violent media and aggression.
C. Young girls are harmed more by violent media than preschool-age boys.
D. Watching media violence makes children less willing to tolerate aggression in others.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding violent media and aggression?

A. Media violence "hardens" children to aggression, making them more willing to tolerate it in others.

193

During early childhood, children's gender-stereotyped beliefs

A. become more flexible and operate as guidelines for behavior.
B. are viewed as situational, so they change from one context to another.
C. are seldom reinforced by parents or peers.
D. become stronger and operate as blanket rules for behavior.

During early childhood, children's gender-stereotyped beliefs

D. become stronger and operate as blanket rules for behavior.

194

The case of David Reimer demonstrates

A. that gender atypical children experience harsh criticism from peers.
B. the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as male or female.
C. that gender stereotyping among children contributes to poor self-esteem.
D. the stronger role of the environment over heredity in determining one's gender identity.

The case of David Reimer demonstrates

B. the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as male or female.

195

According to social learning theory, how do preschoolers develop gender identity?

A. They carefully adapt gender-specific behaviors to their environments.
B. They identify with their other-sex parent as a way to reduce guilt.
C. They first acquire gender-typed responses, and later organize their behaviors into gender-linked ideas about themselves.
D. They first acquire a cognitive appreciation of permanence, and then develop gender-specific skills.

According to social learning theory, how do preschoolers develop gender identity?

C. They first acquire gender-typed responses, and later organize their behaviors into gender-linked ideas about themselves.

196

Children organize experiences into gender schemas that they use to

A. interpret their world.
B. understand the other sex.
C. solve gender constancy tasks.
D. label their emotional feelings.

Children organize experiences into gender schemas that they use to

A. interpret their world.

197

A parent who says, "It's your bedtime. Go to bed and don't ask me why or you'll be in trouble," is using an __________ child-rearing style.

A. authoritarian
B. indifferent
C. uninvolved
D. authoritative

A parent who says, "It's your bedtime. Go to bed and don't ask me why or you'll be in trouble," is using an __________ child-rearing style.

A. authoritarian

198

Most reported cases of child maltreatment involve

A. physical abuse.
B. neglect.
C. emotional abuse.
D. sexual abuse.

Most reported cases of child maltreatment involve

B. neglect.

199

The most effective approach for preventing mothers with childhood histories of abuse from repeating the cycle with their own youngsters is to

A. remove children from the family home before the abuse occurs.
B. help the mother form a trusting relationship with another person.
C. mandate weekly home visits with a social worker.
D. place potentially abusive parents in outpatient treatment programs.

The most effective approach for preventing mothers with childhood histories of abuse from repeating the cycle with their own youngsters is to

B. help the mother form a trusting relationship with another person.

200

According to Erikson, play

A. tends to decline in importance over the preschool years.
B. proceeds in a three-step sequence-nonsocial activity, parallel play, and true social interaction.
C. contributes to cognitive and social development by allowing children to refine existing schemes.
D. permits preschoolers to try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure.

According to Erikson, play

D. permits preschoolers to try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure.

201

Compared to Irish-American parents, Chinese parents typically tell more stories about

A. family vacations.
B. their family ancestors.
C. pleasurable holiday experiences.
D. their child's misdeeds.

Compared to Irish-American parents, Chinese parents typically tell more stories about

D. their child's misdeeds.

202

By age 4, preschoolers tend to

A. accurately rate their competence at a task.
B. avoid making self-judgments.
C. underestimate their competence at a task.
D. underestimate task difficulty.

By age 4, preschoolers tend to

D. underestimate task difficulty.

203

Of the following, which is particularly helpful in aiding children to judge others' emotions?

A. discussions in which family members disagree
B. giving children conflicting cues about how a person is feeling
C. emphasizing external factors over internal states
D. immediately intervening when peer conflict occurs

Of the following, which is particularly helpful in aiding children to judge others' emotions?

A. discussions in which family members disagree

204

Which 3-year-old is displaying emotional self-regulation during a scary movie scene?

A. Sofia, who cries for her mother
B. Sayleja, who yells at her brother who is also watching the movie
C. Sandra, who stares at the TV and whimpers softly
D. Sara, who covers her eyes

Which 3-year-old is displaying emotional self-regulation during a scary movie scene?

D. Sara, who covers her eyes

205

Of the following, which statement is true regarding empathy and sympathy in children?

A. Children who experience angry, punitive parenting are more likely to display empathy and sympathy toward others at an early age.
B. Preschoolers tend to have limited experience with situations that merit empathetic responding.
C. Although empathy and sympathy develop during the preschool years, these emotions are not consistently displayed until middle childhood.
D. Parents who show empathic concern have children who are likely to react in a concerned way to the distress of others.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding empathy and sympathy in children?

D. Parents who show empathic concern have children who are likely to react in a concerned way to the distress of others.

206

According to Mildred Parten, ______ play occurs when children work toward a common goal, such as acting out a family routine.

A. cooperative
B. associative
C. parallel
D. nonsocial

According to Mildred Parten, ______ play occurs when children work toward a common goal, such as acting out a family routine.

A. cooperative

207

Preschooler Colby spends a great deal of time in nonsocial activity, wandering aimlessly around the classroom and hovering near peers. What is the best caregiver response to Colby's behavior?

A. Talk to his classmates and instruct them to include him in their activities.
B. Patiently encourage him to approach other children.
C. Control the play activities to ensure that he is always involved with other children.
D. Dismiss the behavior but remind him that he should select at least one activity.

Preschooler Colby spends a great deal of time in nonsocial activity, wandering aimlessly around the classroom and hovering near peers. What is the best caregiver response to Colby's behavior?

B. Patiently encourage him to approach other children.

208

In studies involving several thousand 4-year-olds in public preschools, ________________ were especially potent predictors of children's social competence.

A. teacher sensitivity and emotional support
B. low teacher-child ratios and access to educational media
C. high IQ and an inhibited temperament
D. highly structured play time and strict discipline

In studies involving several thousand 4-year-olds in public preschools, ________________ were especially potent predictors of children's social competence.

A. teacher sensitivity and emotional support

209

Mrs. Bryant wants to use inductive discipline with her daughter, Bailey. The next time Bailey pushes a friend, Mrs. Bryant should

A. put Bailey in a time out to consider why she misbehaved.
B. use corporal punishment but explain why such punishment was necessary.
C. explain to Bailey how pushing made her friend feel.
D. ignore the misbehavior unless it escalates.

Mrs. Bryant wants to use inductive discipline with her daughter, Bailey. The next time Bailey pushes a friend, Mrs. Bryant should

.
C. explain to Bailey how pushing made her friend feel.

210

Parents with mental health problems are more likely to

A. ignore their children's misbehavior.
B. have shy, inhibited children.
C. ask friends and family for child-rearing advice.
D. have hard-to-manage children who evoke parental harshness.

Parents with mental health problems are more likely to

D. have hard-to-manage children who evoke parental harshness.

211

Research on cross-cultural differences in use of physical punishment indicates that

A. white families are more likely than most ethnic-minority families to use corporal punishment.
B. in black families, such punishment is generally mild and delivered in a context of parental warmth.
C. regardless of how it is used, corporal punishment predicts long-term maladjustment in children of diverse cultural backgrounds.
D. most ethnic-minority parents regard corporal punishment as harmful to children's development.

Research on cross-cultural differences in use of physical punishment indicates that

B. in black families, such punishment is generally mild and delivered in a context of parental warmth.

212

The most effective forms of discipline encourage good conduct through

A. time out for misbehavior.
B. rewards and punishment.
C. building a mutually respectful bond.
D. withdrawal of privileges.

The most effective forms of discipline encourage good conduct through

C. building a mutually respectful bond.

213

Five-year-old Nicole purposely chose to wear her T-shirt inside-out and backwards, with the tag hanging in the front. Nicole's behavior is an example of a(n)

A. moral imperative.
B. social convention.
C. mature personal identity.
D. matter of personal choice.

Five-year-old Nicole purposely chose to wear her T-shirt inside-out and backwards, with the tag hanging in the front. Nicole's behavior is an example of a(n)

D. matter of personal choice.

214

As Terry rushes to be first in the lunch line, he knocks down another child. This is an example of __________ aggression.

A. relational
B. reactive
C. proactive
D. hostile

As Terry rushes to be first in the lunch line, he knocks down another child. This is an example of __________ aggression.

C. proactive

215

Research shows that playing violent video and computer games

A. is less harmful to children than watching violent television.
B. is especially harmful to young girls, who have difficulty processing aggressive behavior.
C. is more harmful to children than watching violent television.
D. has similar effects on children as viewing violent television.

Research shows that playing violent video and computer games

D. has similar effects on children as viewing violent television.

216

With regard to biological influences in gender typing, evolutionary theorists claim that

A. experience cannot eradicate those aspects of gender typing that served an adaptive function in human history.
B. family and cultural forces can virtually eradicate biologically based aspects of behavior.
C. most stereotypical male traits, which are attributed to genetic factors, primarily exist in Western cultures.
D. traditional gender roles were unlikely to have served an adaptive function in human history.

With regard to biological influences in gender typing, evolutionary theorists claim that

A. experience cannot eradicate those aspects of gender typing that served an adaptive function in human history.


217

Brenda (Bruce Reimer), who was born a male,

A. resisted her parents' efforts to steer her in a "masculine" direction.
B. resisted her parents' efforts to steer her in a "feminine direction."
C. eventually developed a healthy, androgynous sexual identity.
D. was able to overcome her male biology and develop a female sexual identity.

Brenda (Bruce Reimer), who was born a male,

B. resisted her parents' efforts to steer her in a "feminine direction."

218

Of the following, which statement is true regarding family influence on gender typing?

A. Beginning at birth, parents perceive sons and daughters similarly and hold the same expectations for them.
B. Parents provide children with indirect cues about gender categories and stereotypes through the language they use.
C. Children with older, other-sex siblings are more gender typed in play preferences and attitudes than children with same-sex siblings.
D. Mothers are more likely than fathers to encourage "gender-appropriate" behavior in their children.

Of the following, which statement is true regarding family influence on gender typing?

B. Parents provide children with indirect cues about gender categories and stereotypes through the language they use.

219

Preschoolers' same-sex peer groups

A. prevent them from understanding behavioral differences between boys and girls.
B. increase children's opportunities for cross-gender play.
C. increase children's tolerance for gender-atypical activities.
D. make the peer context an especially potent source of gender-role learning.

Preschoolers' same-sex peer groups

D. make the peer context an especially potent source of gender-role learning.

220

In many cultures, young children do not have access to basic biological knowledge about gender because

A. such knowledge is assumed to be innate.
B. most adults do not address biological issues unless a child asks specific questions.
C. they rarely see members of the other sex naked.
D. they do not become interested in gender differences until the school years.

In many cultures, young children do not have access to basic biological knowledge about gender because

C. they rarely see members of the other sex naked.

221

What can teachers do to help young children avoid developing rigid gender schemas?

A. They can continually point out instances of gender stereotyping in the media.
B. They should encourage children's gender-typed behavior, knowing that they will grow out of it.
C. They can make students aware of gender differences by having boys and girls eat and play separately.
D. They can ensure that all children spend time in both adult-structured and unstructured pursuits.

What can teachers do to help young children avoid developing rigid gender schemas?

D. They can ensure that all children spend time in both adult-structured and unstructured pursuits.

222

Authoritative parents typically make demands that

A. are slightly beyond the children's current abilities, forcing them to work harder to achieve their goals.
B. are similar for each child in the family, regardless of individual temperament or behavior.
C. are slightly below the children's current abilities, allowing them to experience achievement and success.
D. fit children's ability to take responsibility for their own behavior, thereby fostering high self-esteem.

Authoritative parents typically make demands that

D. fit children's ability to take responsibility for their own behavior, thereby fostering high self-esteem.

223

__________ commit more than 80 percent of abusive incidents against children.

A. Teachers and child-care workers
B. Strangers
C. Clergy members
D. Parents

__________ commit more than 80 percent of abusive incidents against children.

D. Parents