Chapter 13 - Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Deck (53)
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Erikson’s stage

Industry versus inferiority

Redirect from make believe to real accomplishments

Resolved when experienced lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks

Inferiority is reflected in pessimism and little confidence

Developments: positive but realistic self-concept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, cooperative participation.



The energetic pursuit of meaningful achievement

A major change in middle childhood



A part of self understanding

By middle childhood, children
Can describe themselves in terms of competencies and tendencies, rather than just specific behaviours
Mention both positive and negative traits
Use social comparisons as a means of judging themselves


Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Influences on Self-Concept

Decentration allows children to combine typical experiences and behaviours into stable psychological dispositions
blend positive and negative traits
compare themselves with many peers simultaneously

Improvements in perspective-taking skills—the looking-glass self
Internalizing the expectations of others—formation of an ideal self that they use to evaluate the real self
Elaborative parent-child conversations—building more complex, favourable, and coherent self-concepts
Change in relative importance of feedback from parents v friends

Western parents emphasize separateness and self-assertion
Asian parents stress harmonious interdependence


During middle childhood, self-esteem

Becomes more realistic
Differentiates into different aspects of the self
They are able to evaluate these separately, and combine them into an overall self-esteem
Note that the different aspects don’t impact global self-esteem equally


Self-esteem tends to decline during the first few years of elementary school

Children receive more competence-related feedback, and they are often judged in relation to others
Eventually, children balance social comparisons with personal achievement goals
From fourth grade on, self-esteem rises for most young people


Influences on Self-Esteem

Which traits are valued? (physical appearance – self-worth)
Relatively value of confidence v modesty
Gender stereotypes influencing feelings of competence across domains
Contact with extended family, sense of ethnic pride
Extent to which the child’s SES and ethnic groups are represented in his/her school

Authoritative parenting tends to lead to higher self-esteem
Controlling parents communicate a sense of inadequacy to children
Overly indulgent parenting is linked to unrealistically high self-esteem, which can lead to adjustment problems

Achievement and self-esteem is a bidirectional relationship

The attributions we make about our achievements influence our self-esteem
Mastery-oriented attributions
Learned helplessness



Mastery-oriented attributions involve an incremental view of ability, and a tendency to try hard, whether past efforts have resulted in success or failure
Improve by trying hard and cand be counted on when facing new challenges
Learning goals


Learned helplessness

Learned helplessness involves a fixed view of ability, and leads to giving up, and choosing to tackle only the easiest tasks
Attribute failures to ability and successes to external factors like luck
“fixed view of ablitiy” that cant be impoved by hard work
Performance goals


Attribution retraining

Attribution retraining - an intervention that uses adult feedback to encourage learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure through effort
Children are given the opportunity to experience both success and failure, with feedback leading them to understand that both ability and effort (not chance) impact their outcomes
Instruction in effective strategies and self-regulation is often provided


We’re more likely to see a mastery-oriented child when adults

We’re more likely to see a helpless child when adults

We’re more likely to see a mastery-oriented child when adults
Hold an incremental view of ability
Praise or criticize the child’s individual strategies or behaviours

We’re more likely to see a helpless child when adults
Hold a fixed view of ability
Praise or criticize the child as a whole


Self-Conscious Emotions

Self-conscious emotions even when no adult is present to witness their actions (personal responsibility)
Pride in a new accomplishment
Guilt about intentional wrongdoing (but no longer about mishaps)
Specific aspects of self as leading to pride or guilt
Shame when a violation of a standard is not under their control


3 areas of emotional development

Self-Conscious Emotions
Emotional Understanding
Emotional Self-Regulation


Emotional Understanding

In middle childhood, we
Explain emotion by referring to internal states, such as thoughts, rather than to external events
Learn that we can experience multiple emotions at once, and these emotions may be a mix of positive and negative, and of different intensities
Begin to understand that expressions may not reflect true feelings
Can reconcile contradictory facial and situational cues in figuring out another’s emotions
Understand that how we feel about a situation may be altered on what the situation could have been

Adults’ sensitivity to children’s feelings and willingness to discuss emotions are important to development here
Assuming sensitive and open communication, we begin to see an increase in empathy
This is also assisted by improvements in perspective-taking
Note that emotional understanding and empathy are linked to favourable social relationships and prosocial behaviour


Emotional Self-Regulation

By age 10, most children can switch adaptively between these problem-centred coping and emotion-centred coping

School-age children
Are more likely than preschoolers to use internal strategies to regulate emotion
Have learned from others the socially approved ways to display negative emotion
Verbal stratagies


problem-centred coping

Problem-focused coping targets the causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress.

Problem focused strategies aim to remove or reduce the cause of the stressor.


emotion-centred coping

Emotion-focused coping involves trying to reduce the negative emotional responses associated with stress such as embarrassment, fear, anxiety, depression, excitement and frustration. This may be the only realistic option when the source of stress is outside the person’s control.


Emotional self-efficacy

Emotional self-efficacy - a feeling of being in control of their emotional experience
we see this in school-age children if emotional self-regulation has developed well
It fosters a positive self-image and an optimistic outlook


Emotional self-regulation is influenced by

Parental responses
Sensitive and helpful responses to distress versus hostile or dismissive attitudes

Focus on controlling emotional behaviour, having a calm and peaceful disposition, or on self-expression


Moral Development

There are great advances in moral development during middle childhood
Internalize rules for good conduct – they become more independent and trustworthy
Children at this age can reason more effectively than can younger children
They have much stronger perspective taking skills


Moral and Social-Conventional Understanding

Flexible appreciation of moral rules
In middle childhood, children’s evaluations of actions become more influenced by intentions and social norms
Judgments of violations of rules or conventions are now based in part on whether or not the rule seems to be purposeful and justified
Context becomes a factor
The knowledge of the transgressor matters in their evaluations


Understanding Individual Rights

In middle childhood, children
Believe that choices of hairstyle, friends, and leisure activities are up to the individual
View freedom of speech and religion as individual rights, even when denied by law
Regard laws that discriminate against individuals as wrong and worthy of violating
Do believe that some decisions should be made by those who are better equipped to make them
Usually choose fairness over personal gain, if the fairness issue is brought to their attention


Cultural and Moral Understanding

Across diverse cultures, children
Believe adults have no right to interfere in children’s personal matters, such as how they spend free time
Believe that a child with no authority should still be obeyed when giving a fair and caring directive
Negatively evaluate an adult’s order to engage in immoral acts


Children pick up information about group status from

Implicit messages


In-group and out-group bias

White see white as better
Minority see white as better

Inner traits become more important with age and negative attitudes towards minority’s decrease

The extent to which children hold racual bias varies based on personal and situational factors:
- A fixed view of personality
- Overly high self-esteem
- A social world where people are sorted in to groups


Reduce prejudice therough

Intergroup contact (cooperitve, long term)


Peer Relations

School age children often spend significant time with peers
Peer contact contributes to perspective taking and understanding of self and others, which then enhance peer interaction
Compared to preschoolers, school age children
Resolve conflicts more effectively, using persuasion and compromise
Share more, help more, and engage in other prosocial acts more
Show declines in aggression, especially physical attacks
Can acquire social skills: cooperation, leadership, followship, loyalty, collective goals, social oginization.


By middle childhood, most children say that excluding someone from a peer group is

Wrong, if it’s based on unconventional appearance or behaviour

Justified, if a peer threatens group functioning by acting disruptively or by lacking skills to participate in a valued group activity

This does not, however, mean that children don’t unjustly exclude others


Peer Groups

Peer groups - social units of peers who generate unique values and standards for behaviour and a social structure of leaders and followers
Peer groups organize on the basis of
Similarity in sex, ethnicity, academic achievement, popularity, and aggression


unjustly exclude others

Some children are denied ‘membership’
Sometimes former ‘members’ are ousted from a group
If they were unkind to outgroup members before, it may be difficult for them to find a new pear group
Socially anxious children often become increasingly peer-avoidant when excluded from a group, and thus more isolated
Excluded children have fewer opportunities to acquire socially competent behaviour, and often decline in class participation and academic standing as well