Flashcards in Middle Childhood Study Questions Deck (200):
In most industrialized nations, the secular gain in height has slowed in recent decades, but weight gain
is continuing at a high rate
Synaptic pruning and the accompanying reorganization and selection of brain circuits contribute to
more efficient information processing.
Compared with adequately nourished agemates, growth-stunted school-age children
respond with greater fear to stressful situations.
Today ___ percent of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight, and ___ percent are obese.
By the end of the middle school years, __________ affects nearly 25 percent of children.
What percent of American school-age children suffer from nocturnal enuresis?
One of the risk factors for developing asthma in childhood is
being born underweight.
An effective safety education program would include
extensive modeling, rehearsal of safety practices, performance feedback, tangible rewards, and booster sessions.
The school-age period may be especially important for fostering healthy lifestyles because of the child's
growing independence and self-concept.
Compared with preschoolers, school-age children are
more flexible and elastic.
Gains in fine-motor skills are especially evident in children's
writing and drawing.
The transition to rule-oriented games in middle childhood particularly depends upon
the ability to understand the roles of several players in a game.
Which statement is true about adult-organized youth sports?
Children enjoy sports more when effort and teamwork are emphasized.
The rough-and-tumble play that middle school children engage in
is a good-natured social activity that is distinct from aggression.
Taking recess breaks has been shown to be especially important for _____ children.
The __________ grow(s) fastest during middle childhood.
lower portion of the body
In industrialized nations, secular trends in physical growth indicate
changes in body size from one generation to the next.
During middle childhood, children have
unusual flexibility of movement.
Malocclusion can be caused by
thumb and finger sucking after permanent teeth erupt
During middle childhood, reorganization and pruning of neural connections leads to
more efficient information processing and gains in attention and inhibition.
are more responsive to food stimuli than normal-weight children
In diverse cultures, the incidence of myopia has increased because
children are spending more time reading, writing, and using the computer.
As many as 20 percent of low-SES children develop some hearing loss due to
repeated ear infections.
To treat nocturnal enuresis, doctors often prescribe
On average, illness causes children to miss about _____ days of school per year.
With regard to the causes of asthma, researchers believe that
heredity contributes, but environmental factors are necessary to spark the illness.
Which explanation of disease is most likely from an American first-grader?
"You probably caught a cold by playing outside in the cold weather."
Of the following, which is an important strategy for fostering healthy lifestyles in school-age children?
Teach children to be critical of media advertising.
During middle childhood, boys are considerably ahead of girls in
kicking skill and accuracy.
Along with body growth, improved __________________ also sparks improvements in motor skills.
For most children, joining community athletic teams is associated with
increased social competence.
By age 6,
the child's brain has reached 90 percent of its adult weight.
During middle childhood, what will parents especially notice about their child's growth?
Pants and shoes need to be replaced frequently because the lower body grows the fastest.
What evolutionary adaptation has resulted in shorter, stocky children?
living in a cold, arctic climate
Maya's grandmother is very short and her mother is slightly taller. At age 13, Maya is already taller than both of them. This is an example of a(n)
__________ is a condition in which the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, which can be caused by __________.
Malocclusion; crowding of permanent teeth
Which of the following is a powerful predictor of poor health during middle childhood?
Children who suffer from undernourishment and malnutrition in their early years are
at risk for excessive weight gain later in life.
Your neighbor is concerned about her obese 8-year-old's health, and wants to help her lose weight. Which would be the most effective treatment?
Implement a family-based intervention that focuses on changing behaviors.
Myopia is one of the few health conditions to increase
with family income and education.
The most effective treatment for nocturnal enuresis is
a urine alarm.
The most common chronic illness of childhood is
Young children regard health as a simple matter of engaging in specific practices because they
know very little about biology.
Running, hopping, skipping, throwing, and kicking all require athletic skill in
Of the following, which statement is true regarding athletic performance of school-age boys and girls?
Girls regard boys' advantage in sports as unjust.
Middle childhood is a crucial time to encourage girls' participation in sports because during this period,
children start to discover what they are good at.
Because __________ rely on simple physical skills and a sizable element of luck, they rarely become contests of individual ability.
Parental concerns about neighborhood safety have resulted in
less spontaneous play and more adult-organized activities.
About ___ percent of boys and ____ percent of girls participate in organized sports outside of school hours at some time between ages 5 and 18.
According to one study, kindergartners and first graders showed positive academic achievement if they did what during recess?
had conversations with other students
Children between ages 7 and 10 are interested in collecting items like stamps, coins, and rocks because
they enjoy separating and rearranging objects into classes and subclasses.
concrete operational thinking.
Neo-Piagetian theorists argue that the development of operational thinking can best be understood in terms of
gains in information-processing speed.
Prefrontal cortex development in middle childhood contributes to what aspect of thinking?
gains in inhibition
Children with ADHD cannot ______________ for more than a few minutes.
stay focused on a cognitive task
When groups of fourth-grade experts and nonexperts in soccer knowledge were given lists of new soccer and nonsoccer items to learn,
the experts remembered more new soccer items than the nonexperts.
Appreciation of _______ enables children to identify the reasons that another person arrived at a certain belief.
second-order false beliefs
Throughout elementary and secondary school, cognitive self-regulation predicts
The individual tests most commonly used to measure children's intelligence are the __________ and the __________.
Many studies reveal a __________ relationship between processing speed, measured in terms of reaction time on diverse cognitive tasks, and __________.
When researchers asked ethnically diverse parents for their idea of an intelligent first grader, Caucasian Americans mentioned __________, and ethnic minorities mentioned __________.
cognitive traits; motivation and self-management
Gardner's set of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences not tapped by IQ scores have become known as __________ intelligence.
Emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with
Based upon heritability estimates and kinship evidence, researchers estimate that
about half of the differences in IQ among children can be traced to their genetic makeup.
Arthur Jensen is controversial because he believes that
heredity is largely responsible for group differences in intelligence.
With increasing education, many ethnic-minority parents shift from a __________ style of communication to a __________ style of communication.
Of the following, which is true of dynamic assessment?
It involves adult intervention in the testing situation.
What results when school-age children become stigmatized by ethnic stereotypes?
They start to devalue academic achievement.
Children of bilingual parents who teach them both languages in infancy and early childhood
show no special problems with language development.
A large-scale study of Tennessee kindergartners found that placing a teacher's aide in regular-size classes
had no impact on reading and math achievement.
Of the following, which Vygotsky-inspired teaching method was originally designed to improve reading comprehension in poorly achieving students?
Public education is largely supported by
local property taxes.
Nongame computer use is associated with
academic progress in writing and research.
The standard definition of giftedness is based on an intelligence test score of at least
Tests that have been devised to assess children's capacity for creative thought tap __________ thinking.
When children become capable of decentration in middle childhood, they can
focus on several aspects of a problem and relate them.
Which child is engaging in seriation?
Kyle, who arranges a bunch of sticks in size order from shortest to longest
Of the following, which statement is true regarding young children's cognitive maps?
By the end of middle childhood, children combine landmarks and routes into an overall view of space.
Of the following, children typically master conservation of _____ first.
Young children often rely on cumbersome __________ strategies, perhaps because they do not realize that certain problems can be solved __________.
Time needed to process information on a wide variety of cognitive tasks declines rapidly between ages _____ in children from several cultures.
6 and 12
When children are asked to identify a particular two-digit sequence from a stream of irrelevant numbers, researchers are assessing
selective attention skills.
For a child to be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the child's symptoms must appear before the age of
The first memory strategy to appear in the early grade school years is
In middle childhood, children regard the mind as a(n)
active, constructive agent that is capable of selecting and transforming information.
Learned-helpless youngsters receive messages from parents and teachers that
undermine their academic self-esteem and self-regulatory skills.
Educators who support the whole-language approach believe that
children learn to read more quickly when exposed to text in its complete form.
Over the early elementary school years, the most beneficial approach to teaching mathematics is
a blend of drilling on basic math facts and the development of number sense.
When researchers conduct componential analyses of children's test scores, they are looking for
relationships between aspects of information processing and children's IQs.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
dismisses the idea of general intelligence in favor of at least eight independent intelligences.
What are the three types of intelligence included in Sternberg's triarchic theory?
analytical, creative, and practical
Emotional intelligence is positively correlated with
The authors of The Bell Curve have argued that
heredity contributes to individual and SES differences in IQ.
Most American school-age children use a __________ narrative style, whereas African-American children often use a __________ style.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding second-language learning?
It can take school-age children 5 to 7 years to become fluent in a second language.
Older school-age children in __________ classrooms have a slight edge in achievement test scores, but children in __________ classrooms show gains in critical thinking and have more positive attitudes toward school.
The Vygotsky-based innovation of transforming a classroom into communities of learners
assumes that different people have different expertises that can benefit the community and that students may become experts to whom others may turn.
School integration has been receding because
federal courts awarded integration authority to states and cities.
Five to ten percent of U.S. schoolchildren in inclusive classrooms struggle with one or more aspects of learning, and can be considered to have
In international studies of reading, mathematics, and science achievement, young people in __________ are consistently top performers.
Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan
The ability to seriate mentally is known as
Around age 8 to 10, children's maps begin to depict
landmarks along an organized route of travel.
One limitation of concrete operational thinking is that children
have difficulty performing mental operations with abstract ideas.
Robbie Case believed that the development of operational thinking is due to gains in
speed of information processing.
Individuals skilled at inhibition can prevent their minds from straying to irrelevant thoughts, which is an ability that
preserves space in working memory for the task at hand.
Which of the following statements about ADHD is true?
It runs in families and is highly heritable.
Ahindro has had no formal schooling. Of the following, which statement is probably true?
He will not benefit from instruction in memory strategies.
During the school years, cognitive self-regulation
predicts academic success.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding whole language and phonics?
Learning the relationships between letters and sounds enables children to decode words.
Mr. Bernalillo is about to administer the WISC-IV to a child who just immigrated from Mexico. He should be cautious about interpreting the __________ score, due to the possibility of cultural bias.
Of the following, which is true of emotional intelligence?
It predicts many aspects of success in the workplace.
Adoption research has confirmed that __________ contribute(s) to children's IQ scores.
both heredity and environment
Tyler pitches for his school's baseball team. After hearing rumors that his English teacher thinks all athletes are poor students, Tyler feel anxious about his performance in English class. What is Tyler experiencing?
Dr. Farmington is administering a procedure where she pretests, purposefully intervenes, and then retests an ethnic-minority child. Dr. Farmington is conducting
a dynamic assessment.
Children's ability to comprehend subtle metaphors and to appreciate puns largely depends on
understanding words' double meanings.
English-speaking children show gains in grammatical construction through
increased use of the passive voice.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding the pragmatics of clear communication?
School-age children adapt to the needs of listeners in challenging communicative situations.
Of the following, which is true about narrative styles?
African-American children's narratives tend to be longer and more complex than those of white children.
Canadian language immersion programs are more successful than those in the United States because
French and English are equally valued in Canada.
Of the following, which has been shown to predict high student achievement?
maintaining small class sizes from kindergarten through third grade
Lawrence's teacher guides his learning, but no distinction is made between adult and child contributors. Everyone has the authority to define and resolve problems. What type of classroom is this?
community of learners
Celeste is a low-achieving student. Research shows that her teacher will probably
publicly compare Celeste to high-achieving students in the class.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding educating gifted children?
When parents and teachers push them too hard, they may decide not to pursue their gift.
Compared to Asian parents, American parents are more likely to
regard native ability as the key to academic success.
According to Erikson, when children positively resolve the psychological conflict of middle childhood, they
develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks.
Mead believed that children develop a self-concept based on their personality traits once they have mastered
Chinese and Japanese children
score lower in self-esteem than U.S. children, despite their higher academic achievement.
Parents who are overly indulgent have children who
have unrealistically high self-esteem.
Of the following, which summarizes research findings on American and Chinese mothers' responses to their children's attempts to solve a puzzle?
Chinese mothers made more task-relevant statements regardless of success or failure.
Which of these educational strategies fosters a mastery-oriented approach to learning?
Match tasks to current competence so the child is challenged but not overwhelmed.
If problem solving does not work for managing emotion, most children will then engage in __________ -centered coping.
When emotional self-regulation is well-developed, school-age children acquire a sense of
When children attempt to answer questions about God that are too cognitively demanding, they
rely on their knowledge of humans.
As children move through the school years,
aggression declines, especially physical attacks.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding peer group exclusion?
Girls, especially, regard exclusion as unjust because they experience it more often than boys do.
During the school years, friendships
have trust as their defining feature.
When children are asked to identify classmates whom they like or dislike, controversial children get
a large number of both positive and negative votes.
Typically, a victim of bullying
assumes a defensive posture.
By the end of the school years, children
regard gender typing as socially rather than biologically influenced.
Incorrect From third to sixth grade,
boys become more stereotypically "masculine," while girls' identification with "feminine" traits declines.
In middle childhood, sibling rivalry
tends to increase.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding never-married, single-parent families?
Never-married African-American mothers often rely on extended family for help in rearing their children.
An immediate effect of a parental divorce is that
mother-headed households typically experience a sharp drop in income.
Most often, __________ blame themselves for their parents' marital breakup.
preschool and early school-age children
Research on self-care during after-school hours shows that
the percentage of children in self-care increases with socioeconomic status.
The best protection against lasting problems for children exposed to ethnic and political violence is
Educational programs that teach children to recognize inappropriate sexual advances and whom to turn to for help
are offered by few schools because of the controversy surrounding such programs.
______ predicts children's resistance to suggestion when giving eyewitness testimony.
School-based programs to reduce violence and other antisocial acts
build social competence and supportive relationships.
According to Erikson, when children in middle childhood are not prepared for school life or when their experiences with teachers are negative, they develop a sense of
Unlike the United States, individuals in China define themselves
in relation to their social group.
Of the following, which is the best way for parents to encourage a positive, secure self-image?
Realize that worthwhile achievement fosters self-esteem, which, in turn, promotes good performance.
-oriented children focus on __________, and learned-helpless children focus on __________.
learning goals; performance goals
Making trait statements to children, such as saying "You're so smart," promotes
a fixed view of ability, which leads children to question their competence in the face of setbacks.
In attribution retraining, children who have developed learned helplessness are
given tasks difficult enough to fail, followed by feedback that helps them revise their attributions.
The display of emotional understanding and empathy by young children is linked to
favorable social relationships and prosocial behavior.
In Selman's social-informational perspective-taking stage, children
understand that different perspectives result because people have access to different information.
A cognitive-developmental approach to moral development emphasizes
actively thinking about right and wrong.
As children construct advanced ideas about justice while taking into account an increasing number of variables, they
clarify and link moral rules and social conventions.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding children's understanding of individual rights?
Notions of personal choice enhance children's moral understanding.
Young children typically regard God as a(n)
parentlike figure residing in the sky.
High-quality friendships during middle childhood
remain fairly stable, usually lasting for several years.
Children who are classified as __________ on measures of peer acceptance are often unhappy, alienated, poor achievers with low self-esteem.
Most bullies are
unpopular because of their cruelty.
Between ages 7 and 13, children generally become
more open-minded about girls being offered the same opportunities as boys.
As children demonstrate that they can manage daily activities and responsibilities, effective parents
gradually shift control from adult to child.
American children growing up in one-child families
have higher self-esteem and achievement motivation.
Limited research on homosexual families indicates that
children often face social discrimination, but overall, develop favorably.
When an unmarried mother marries her child's biological father, the
child benefits only when the father is a reliable source of economic and emotional support.
As families go through the transition from marriage to divorce,
discipline may become harsh and inconsistent.
As families go through the transition from marriage to divorce,
discipline may become harsh and inconsistent.
_________________ tend to have the hardest time adjusting to blended-family relationships.
Older children and girls
As children begin to understand the realities of the wider world, new fears emerge, including
the possibility of personal harm, wars, and natural disasters.
In the past decade, ____ has left 6 million children physically disabled, 20 million homeless, and more than 1 million separated from their parents.
The legal requirements for child testimony have recently been relaxed in the United States because of the
rising rates of child abuse.
During the school years, children refine their self-concept by
organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.
When describing herself, an older school-age child is likely to
mention both positive and negative traits.
Angela has low academic-self esteem. Angela probably judges school subjects as
useless, so she exhibits little willingness to try hard and performs poorly.
Teachers who are caring and helpful and who emphasize learning over getting good grades tend to have __________ students.
__________ motivates children to take on further challenges and __________ prompts them to strive for self-improvement.
Which is the correct order of Selman's stages of perspective taking?
undifferentiated, social-informational, self-reflective, third-party, societal
Research shows that _________ generally declines in middle childhood.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding children's moral and social-conventional understanding?
Children from all cultures realize that higher principles must prevail when people's personal rights and welfare are at stake.
Which statement is true regarding children's understanding of God?
Children ask thoughtful questions about God.
Children who believe that people's personality traits are fixed rather than changeable often judge others as either
good or bad.
Peyton and his friends often hang out together at a skating park. They dress similarly and use a specialized vocabulary. Their behavior reflects typical practices of a
Lesley and Cara, both aggressive girls, have developed a friendship. The girls' relationship will probably
be high in exchanges of private feelings, but also full of jealousy, conflict, and betrayal.
What is the difference between peer acceptance and friendship?
Unlike friendship, peer acceptance is not a mutual relationship, but rather a one-sided perspective.
Most bullies are
boys who rely on verbal and physical attacks.
Eight-year-old Sharon thinks that science and math are "boy subjects" and says that she prefers reading and art. Sharon is demonstrating the effects of
Parents find that __________ is more effective with school-age children because of their greater capacity for logical thinking and increased respect for parents' expert knowledge.
Ten-year-old Aaron and 8-year-old Brody are brothers who share a positive sibling bond and warm feelings of affection for each other. Aaron is academically successful and socially competent. Brody will probably
also be academically successful and socially competent.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding only children?
Only children tend to be less well-accepted in peer groups than children with siblings.
Eleven-year-old Miguel's parents are getting divorced. Miguel is likely to respond by
escaping into undesirable peer activities.
Ms. Liso successfully balances her work as a personal trainer with being 8-year-old Melissa's mother. Because of her mother's employment, Melissa will probably
exhibit high self-esteem and become achievement- and career-oriented.
Orphans in Eritrea showed less emotional stress after five years when they were placed in a setting where they could
form close relationships with adults.
In about 25 percent of child abuse cases, the abuser is
the child's mother.
Seven-year-old Ellen displays precocious sexual knowledge and behavior. This could be an indication that Ellen
has been sexually abused.
Of the following, which is most likely to lead to accurate reporting by a child witness in a court case?
"Tell me what happened."