Flashcards in Chapter 1: Introduction Deck (17):
A broad term for assumptions and theories that are based off of everyday behaviour that are seen in ourselves and others
i.e. "binary digit", it is the most basic unit of information; it is a way to quantify and compare pieces of information in different situations.
The more probable an event is, the less information you have on it, and the the less likely an event is, the more information you have on it.
(e.g. what contains more information: recalling a snowy day in December or recalling a hot day in December? - the latter, because it is more memorable, per se)
Broadbent's Filter Model
(1958): Information processing is restricted by channel capacity, i.e. we can only absorb as much as our channel capacity allows us: external information/stimuli enters input channels (ears, eyes, etc.) --> information enters sensory buffer which is temporary storage --> we filter out what is important and what to focus our attention on by extracting simple stimulus characteristics (e.g. colour, voice, location).
The maximum amount of information that can be transmitted to an information processing device (e.g. human brain)
"Looking inward" in a structured way to observe one's own thoughts and feelings
aka, short-term memory or immediate memory; what we are aware of in the present moment. Belongs in the PRESENT.
aka, long-term memory; knowledge acquired at an earlier time that is stored in our memory forever that exists beyond the conscious level. Belongs in the PAST.
Participants are given a set of items to remember, and then they are given a number that they then must count backwards in threes (i.e. 100, 97, 94...etc.), and after a specific time interval (seconds) the participant would be asked to recall the set of items.
Waugh and Norman's Model of Information-Processing
(1965): You need to rehearse information in order for it to be saved into long-term memory. Recall memory decreases as the distractor duration increases.
JJ Gibson's Ecological Approach
(1950, 1966): Approaching psychology with "real-world" experiments rather than artificial, lab-based experiments; studying cognition in a way that reflect real-world situations.
The potential uses of stimuli in the real world, e.g. food affords the possibility of eating, stairs afford the possibility of climbing, ice affords the possibility of skating.
The process where we learn what can and can't be done with what the environment affords us/gives us the potential to do (ex. how we learn that food can allow us to eat)
A schema is a mental system that we all have that tell us what to expect from a experience; developed based on personal experiences and stored in our memories so we can use it later to make sense of future experiences.
When our schemata guides us through life, and what new information we learn we add to our schemata
A new research approach that links real-world observations with laboratory-based theories