Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience Flashcards Preview

PSYC 213: Cognition > Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience Deck (28):
1

Modules

Different parts of the brain are responsible for different cognitive functions.

2

Phrenology

The study of the shape, size, and protrusions and dents of the cranium to understand their relationship with mental activities, abilities, and traits.

3

Localization of Function

The idea that there is a direct correspondence between specific cognitive function and specific parts of the brain.

4

Law of Mass Action

Learning and memory depend on the mass of brain tissue remaining, rather than properties of individual cells.

5

Law of Equipotentiality

Even though some areas of the brain may become specialized for certain tasks, any part of an area can do the job of another area (within limits).

6

Interactionism

Mind and brain are two separate entities that interact and influence one another.

7

Epiphenomenalism

"Mind" is a by-product of physical body function (including the brain) and has no role in determining behaviour.

8

Parallelism

"Mind" and brain are two aspects of the same reality (i.e. every event in the mind also has an event in the brain).

9

Isomorphism

"Mind" events and neural events share the same structure; an experience and its corresponding brain process share the same pattern.

10

Broca's Aphasia

The loss of the ability to produce speech due to damage in Broca's Area.

11

Broca's Area

The part of the left hemisphere that is responsible for how words are spoken .

12

Wernicke's Aphasia

The loss of ability to comprehend speech due to damage in Wernicke's Area.

13

Wernicke's Area

The part of the left hemisphere that is responsible for speech comprehension.

14

Interhemispheric Transfer

Communication between the brain's hemispheres through the corpus callosum.

15

Split Brain

A condition created by damaging the corpus callosum.

16

Emergent Property

?????

17

Emergent Causation

?????

18

Supervenient

?????

19

Event-Related Potentials (ERP)

An electrical signal produced by the brain after exposure of a stimulus

20

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

An imaging method where participants are injected with a radioactive substance that circulates to the brain which allows the scanner to be able to detect the flow of blood to certain areas of the brain.

21

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A non-radioactive, magnetic procedure which can detect flow of oxygenated blood to certain areas of the brain

22

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Non-invasive neuroimaging technique that directly measures neural activity by measuring magnetic fields produced by electrical activity (mix of fMRI and ERP).

23

Connectionism

?????

24

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

An MRI-based neuroimaging technique that allows us to see the white-matter tracts in the brain.

25

Neural Network

Neurons that share the same function or are connected

26

Hebb Rule

"Neurons that fire together, wire together", i.e. a CONNECTION between two neurons takes place ONLY if both neurons are firing approximately at the same time.

27

Parallel Processing

Many neural connections may be active at the same time.

28

Serial Processing

Only one neural activity can occur at that time